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Table of Contents
                            ABAP - By Theme
ABAP Programming
ABAP Introduction
Notes on the Portability of ABAP
	Native SQL
	Files
	Numeric format
	Numbers
	Alignment
	Character set
	Sorting
ABAP Programming Language
ABAP syntax
ABAP Syntax
Syntax conventions in the ABAP keyword documentation
Comments
Comments in ABAP/4 Programs
ABAP Types and Objects
ABAP Types and Objects
	Hierarchy of ABAP Types
	Hierarchy of ABAP objects
Data Types
	Hierarchy of ABAP data types
ABAP Type Names
	Example
	Relative Type Names
	Absolute Type Names
	Example
Built-in elementary data types and complex data types
Numeric Types
ABAP Numeric Types
User-Defined Data Types
	Local Types in Programs
	Global Types
Working with Complex Types
	Basic universal operations
Strings - Fields with Variable Length
Typing Formal Parameters and Field Symbols
	Typing with Complete Types
	Typing with Generic Types
		Other Comments on Typing with Generic Types
Data Objects
Visibility of Data Objects
Variable and Constant Data Objects
Named and Unnamed Data Objects
Named and Unnamed Data Objects
Structure of Data Objects
Statically-Declared and Dynamically-Created Data Objects
Binding of Data Objects to Formal Parameters and Field Symbols
Data Declarations in Events
Global:
Local:
	Example
	Example
Alignment of Data Objects
Byte Order
	Binary representation of numbers
	Binary representation of characters
	Container problems
Literals
	Character Literals
		Text Field Literals
		String Literals
	Numeric Literals
Using Data Objects
Data Objects at Write Positions
Non-Changeable Data Objects
Data Objects at Read Positions
Character-Type Data Objects
Data Objects for Character-Type Operations
Data Objects for Numeric Operations
Data Objects for Byte-Like Operations
Memory Requirements of Deep Data Types
	Internal Tables
	Objects
	Data Objects
	Strings
	Display of the Memory Required
References in ABAP
Typed Data References - Overview
	Using Typed Data References
	Advantages of Typing
	Type Check of Reference Parameters
	Converting Reference Parameters
	Internal Tables
TYPES ... TYPE REF TO DATA
TYPES - For Data References
	Variant 1
		Addition:
			Example
DATA
	Variant 1
		Effect
		Example
ABAP Programming Language
ABAP Data Types and Data Objects
TYPES
	Additional help
TYPES - Simple Type Definitions
	Variants:
	Variant 1
		Extras:
			Effect
		Addition 1
			Effect
			Example
		Addition 2
			Effect
			Example
			Note
		Addition 3
			Effect
			Note
			Example
			Additional help
		Addition 4
			Effect
			Example
		Addition 5
			Effect
			Example
		Addition 6
			Effect
			Example
		Addition 7
			Effect
			Example
		Addition 8
			Effect
		Addition 9
			Effect
	Variant 2
		Extras:
			Effect
			Note
			Additional help
TYPES - Defining a Structured Type
	Basic form
		Effect
		Example
		Additional help
TYPES - Defining an Internal Table Type
	Variants:
		Effect
	Variant 1
		Effect
		Example
	Variant 2
		Addition:
			Effect
		Addition
			Effect
	Variant 3
		Effect
		Note
		Additional help
INCLUDE TYPE
	Basic form 3
		Extras:
			Effect
			Note
		Addition 1
			Effect
			Notes
		Addition 2
			Effect
			Example
			Related
TYPE-POOLS
	Basic form
		Effect
		Example
		Additional help
Keywords for Data Objects
DATA
DATA
	Additional help
DATA - Simple Field Definition
	Variants:
	Variant 1
		Extras:
			Effect
			Additional help
		Addition 1
			Effect
			Example
		Addition 2
			Effect
			Example
			Note
		Addition 3
			Effect
			Example
		Addition 4
			Effect
			Example
		Addition 5
			Effect
			Note
			Example
			Additional help
		Addition 6
			Effect
			Example
		Addition 7
			Example
		Addition 8
			Effect
			Example
			Note
		Addition 9
			Effect
		Addition 10
			Effect
		Addition 11
			Effect
			Example
			Additional help
	Variant 2
		Extras:
			Effect
			Note
DATA - Definition of a Structured Data Object
	Basic form
		Effect
		Note
		Example
		Notes
		Notes
		Additional help
DATA - Defining an Internal Table
	Variants:
	Variants:
		Effect
	Variant 1
		Effect
		Example
	Variant 2
		Effect
	Variant 3
		Effect
	Variant 4
		Extras:
			Effect
		Addition 1
			Effect
		Addition 2
	Variant 5
		Example
	Variant 6
		Effect
		Example
		Additional help
DATA - Defining Common Data Areas
	Basic form
		Effect
		Notes
		Additional help
CREATE - Creating a General Data Object
	Variants:
		Effect
	Variant 1
		Example
	Variant 2
		Effect
		Example
	Variant 3
		Effect
		Example
	Variant 4
		Effect
		Examples
	Variant 5
		Effect
		Exceptions
		Related
SIMPLETYPE Type Declarations in the CREATE DATA Statement
	Alternatives:
		Effect
		Notes
	Alternative 1
		Effect
		Examples
	Alternative 2
		Effect
		Example
		Note
	Alternative 3
		Effect
		Example
	Alternative 4
		Effect
SIMPLEOBJ - Using a Reference Object in the CREATE DATA Statement
	Alternatives:
		Effect
	Alternative 1
		Effect
	Alternative 2
		Effect
LINETYPE - Zeilentypangabe bei CREATE DATA
	Alternatives:
		Effect
	Alternative 1
		Effect
	Alternative 2
		Effect
	Alternative 3
		Effect
KEYDEF - Defining a Table Key in the CREATE DATA Statement
	Alternatives:
		Effect
	Alternative 1
		Effect
	Alternative 2
		Effect
	Alternative 3
		Effect
GET REFERENCE
	Basic form 11
		Effect
		Example
		Exceptions
		Related
		Notes
INCLUDE STRUCTURE
	Basic form 2
		Extras:
			Effect
			Note
			Note
			Note
		Addition 1
			Effect
			Notes
		Addition 2
			Effect
			Related
CONSTANTS
	Variants:
		Effect
		Example
		Note
		Additional help
STATICS
	Effect
	Example
	Additional help
LOCAL
	Basic form
		Effect
		Example
		Note
		Additional help
FIELDS
	Basic form
		Effect
TABLES
	Basic form
		Effect
		Example
		Notes
		Related
		Additional help
NODES
	Basic form
		Extras:
			Effect
			Additional help
Defining the Attributes of Data Objects
DESCRIBE - Supply the Attributes of a Field
	Variants:
		Effect
		Note
	Variant 1
	DESCRIBE FIELD
		Extras:
		Addition 1
			Effect
			Example
		Addition 2
			Effect
		Addition 3
			Effect
		Addition 4
			Effect
			Example
			Note
		Addition 5
			Effect
			Example
		Addition 6
			Effect
			Example
		Addition 7
			Effect
			Example
		Addition 8
			Effect
			Example
		Addition 9
			Effect
			Note
			Example
	Variant 2
		Note
		Effect
		Example
		Additional help
DESCRIBE - Determining the Distance Between Two Fields
	Basic form
		Extras:
			Effect
			Example
		Addition 1
			Effect
		Addition 2
			Effect
			Additional help
Processing Data
Assigning Values
MOVE
	Variants:
	Variant 1
		Effect
		Example
		Notes
		If the target field has type C, you must decide between MOVE and WRITE TO. The MOVE statement is intended for assignments within a program, and it generates a standard display that is compatible with the source type. This can be converted back into the original value using MOVE again, as long as it was not truncated in the assignment. For this reason, the period (.) is always used as the decimal sign, and dates cannot be converted, regardless of the user defaults. 
You use the WRITE TO statement to generate a readable ('external') display for the value of the source field. The target field is usually displayed on a screen or in a list, after further processing if necessary. Unlike MOVE, WRITE TO has several formatting options, which, for some data types, are user-defined. A conversion exit may be called implicitly.
	Variant 2
		Effect
		Example
	Variant 3
		Effect
		Example
	Variant 4
		Effect
		Note
		Example
	Variant 5
		Extras:
			Effect
		Addition 1
			Effect
		Addition 2
			Effect
			Note
			Exceptions
			Related
			Additional help
MOVE-CORRESPONDING
	Basic form
		Effect
		Notes
		Example
		Example
		Related
		Additional help
WRITE - Output to a variable
	Variants:
	Variant 1
		Addition:
			Effect
			Example
			Notes
		Addition
			Effect
	Variant 2
		Effect
		Note
		Note
		Exceptions
		Related
		Additional help
PACK
	Basic form
		Effect
		Example
		Note
		Exceptions
UNPACK
UNPACK
	Basic form
		Effect
		Example
		Notes
		Exceptions
CONVERT - Conversion of date specifications
	Variants:
		Effect
		Note
		Example
		Exceptions
		Additional help
CLEAR
	Basic form
		Extras:
			Effect
			Example
			Notes
			Within a logical expression, you can use f IS INITIAL to check that the field f contains the initial value appropriate for its type.
			Variables are normally initialized according to their type, even if the specification of an explicit initial value is missing (the "... VALUE lit" addition to the DATA statement). For this reason, it is not necessary to initialize variables again with CLEAR after defining them.
		Addition 1
			Effect
		Addition 2
		Addition 3
			Effect
		Addition 4
			Effect
			Note
			Note
			Exceptions
			Additional help
FREE - Resets a data object to its original value and releases the resources it occupied.
	Basic form
		Effect
		Note
		Note
		Additional help
Assigning Values
COMPUTE - Arithmetic Expression
	Variant 1
		Effect
		Note
		Example
		Note
		Notes
		Example
		Note
		Example
		Note
		Note
		Note
		Example
		Example
		Notes
		Exceptions
		Related
		Additional help
ADD
	Variants:
	Variant 1
		Effect
		Example
		Note
		Related
	Variant 2
		Addition:
			Effect
			Example
		Addition
			Effect
	Variant 3
		Addition:
			Effect
			Example
		Addition
			Effect
	Variant 4
		Addition:
			Effect
			Example
		Addition
			Effect
	Variant 5
		Addition:
			Effect
			Example
		Addition
			Effect
			Note
			Exceptions
			Runtime Error: ADD_FIELDS_NOT_IN_RANGE
			Runtime Error: ADD_FIELDS_ILLEGAL_ACCESS
			Additional help
ADD-CORRESPONDING
	Basic form
		Effect
		Example
		Note
		Exceptions
		Related
		Additional help
IF = 'SCREEN'
SUBTRACT Syntax Diagram
ELSE
SUBTRACT 

ENDIF
	Basic form
		Effect
		Example
		Note
		Exceptions
		Related
		Additional help
SUBTRACT-CORRESPONDING
	Basic form
		Effect
		Example
		Note
		Exceptions
		format
		Related
		Additional help
DIVIDE
DIVIDE
	Basic form
		Effect
		Example
		Note
		Exceptions
		Related
		Additional help
DIVIDE-CORRESPONDING
	Basic form
		Effect
		Example
		Note
		Exceptions
		Related
		Additional help
MULTIPLY
MULTIPLY
	Basic form
		Effect
		Example
		Note
		Exceptions
		Related
		Additional help
MULTIPLY-CORRESPONDING
	Basic form
		Effect
		Example
		Note
		Exceptions
		Related
		Additional help
COMPUTE - Exceptions
Processing Byte Strings and Character Strings
Processing Byte Strings and Character Strings
	Byte Strings and Character Strings
	Instructions for Byte and Character String Processing
	Operands in Byte and Character String Processing
		Operands in Byte String Processing
		Operands in Character String Processing
			Note
CONCATENATE
	Basic form
		Effect
		Example
		Addition 1
			Effect
			Examples
		Addition 2
			Effect
		Addition 3
			Effect
			Notes
			If you use the CONCATENATE statement to cut part of a character-type field (example: CONCATENATE f(len) f+off INTO f) you should, for performance reasons, use the REPLACE SECTION statement.
			Related
			Additional help
SPLIT
SPLIT
	Variants:
	Variant 1
		Extras:
			Effect
			Examples
		Addition 1
			Effect
		Addition 2
			Effect
			Notes
	Variant 2
		Extras:
			Effect
			Example
			Note
			Related
			Additional help
SHIFT
	Variants:
	Variant 1
		Extras:
			Effect
			Example
		Addition 1
			Effect
			Example
		Addition 2
			Effect
			Example
		Addition 3
			Effect
		Addition 4
			Effect
		Addition 5
			Effect
	Variant 2
		Extras:
			Effect
			Example
			Note
	Variant 3
		Extras:
			Effect
			Example
			Note
	Variant 4
	Variant 5
		Extras:
			Effect
			Example
		Addition 1
			Effect
		Addition 2
			Effect
			Note
			Related
			Additional help
CONDENSE
	Basic form
		Addition:
			Effect
			Example
		Addition
			Effect
			Example
			Note
			Note
			Related
			Additional help
TRANSLATE
	Variants:
	Variant 1
	Variant 2
		Effect
		Example
		Note
	Variant 3
		Effect
		Example
	Variant 4
		Effect
		Example
		Note
	Variant 5
		Effect
		Example
		Effect
		Note
		Note
		Exceptions
		Related
		Additional help
TRANSLATE c TO UPPER/LOWER CASE: Additional Information
	Variants:
		Example
		Example
		Note
CONVERT - Conversion to a sortable format
	Basic form
		Effect
		Notes
		Note
		Example
		Note
		Exceptions
		Additional help
OVERLAY
OVERLAY
	Basic form
		Addition:
			Effect
			Example
			Note
		Addition
			Effect
			Example
			Note
			Related
			Additional help
REPLACE
	Variants:
REPLACE ... IN ... WITH ...
	Basic form
		Extras:
			Notes
			Effect
			Example
		Addition 1
			Effect
			Example
		Addition 2
			Effect
			Example 1
			Example 2
		Addition 3
			Effect
		Addition 4
			Effect
		Addition 5
			Effect
			Example
		Addition 6
			Effect
			Example
		Addition 7
			Effect
			Note
		Addition 8
			Effect
			Note
		Addition 9
			Effect
			Note
			Example
			Example
		Addition 10
			Effect
			Example
			Note
			Example
		Addition 11
			Effect
			Example
			Exceptions
			Related
			Additional help
REPLACE SECTION OF ... WITH ...
	Basic form
		Extras:
			Notes
			Effect
			Example
			Notes
		Addition 1
			Effect
			Example
		Addition 2
			Effect
			Example
			Related
			Additional help
FIND
	Basic form
		Extras:
			Effect
			Example
			Notes
		Addition 1
			Effect
			Example
		Addition 2
			Effect
			Example
			Note
		Addition 3
		Addition 4
		Addition 5
			Effect
			Example
		Addition 6
			Effect
			Example
			Exceptions
			Related
SEARCH
SEARCH
	Variants:
	Variant 1
		Extras:
			Effect
			Notes
		Addition 1
			Effect
			Example
		Addition 2
			Effect
		Addition 3
			Effect
		Addition 4
			Effect
			Example
		Addition 5
			Effect
		Addition 6
			Effect
	Variant 2
		Extras:
			Effect
			Note
		Addition 1
			Effect
		Addition 2
			Effect
		Addition 3
			Effect
		Addition 4
			Effect
			Example
		Addition 5
			Effect
		Addition 6
			Effect
			Note
			Related
			Additional help
Single-Bit Processing in Hexadecimal Fields
SET BIT
	Basic form 18
		Extras:
			Effect
		Addition 1
			Effect
			Example
			Exceptions
			Related
			Additional help
GET BIT
	Basic form 9
		Effect
		Example
		Exceptions
		Related
		Additional help
COMPUTE - Bit Expression
	Variant 2
		Effect
		Note
		Example
		Example
		Note
		Note
		Exceptions
		Related
		Additional help
Type Conversion
User-specific Input/Output Conversions
	Notes
Field Symbols
FIELD-SYMBOLS
	Basic form
		Extras:
			Effect
			Example
		Addition 1
		Addition 2
		Addition 3
		Addition 4
		Addition 5
		Addition 6
		Addition 7
			Effect
			Effect
			Example
			Related
			Additional help
ASSIGN
	Variants:
ASSIGN
	Variant 1
		Extras:
			Effect
			Note
			Note
			Example
			Example
			Exceptions
			Note
			ABAP_RELATED&
			Additional help
ASSIGN ... CASTING
	Extras:
	Addition 1a
		Effect
		Note
		Example
	Addition 1b
		Effect
		Note
		Note
		Example
	Addition 1c
		Effect
	Addition 1d
		Effect
		Note
ASSIGN
	Addition 2
		Effect
		Note
		Example
DECIMALS Addition
ASSIGN
	Addition 3
		Effect
		Example
		Note
RANGE Addition
ASSIGN
	Addition
		Effect
		Notes
		You can also specify a deep structure in the RANGE addition.
		Example
ASSIGN COMPONENT
	Variant 2
		Extras:
			Effect
			Note
			If idx has the value 0, the entire structure is assigned to the field symbol.
			Example
			Exceptions
			Related
			Additional help
ASSIGN for Dereferencing
	Variant 5
		Extras:
			Effect
			Note
			Example
			Exceptions
			Related
			Additional help
ASSIGN INCREMENT
ASSIGN INCREMENT
	Variant 6
		Extras:
			Effect
			Example
			Example
			Exceptions
			Related
ASSIGN LOCAL COPY
	Variants:
	Variant 3a
		Extras:
			Effect
			Note
			Example
	Variant 3b
		Effect
		Note
	Variant 3c
		Effect
		Note
		Example
		Exceptions
		Related
		Additional help
ASSIGN dynamic
	Variants:
		Effect
	Variant 4a
		Effect
		Notes
		You cannot use offset and length specifications ( (f)+off(len)) with a dynamic ASSIGN.
		The name of the field to be assigned can also be the name of a field symbol or formal parameter (or even a component of one of these, if the field symbol or the parameter has a structure).
		Example
		If the name of the field to be assigned is in the form (program_name)feld_name, the system searches for the field field_name in the global fields of program_name. However, it will not find it unless the program has already been loaded. (Warning: This option is for internal use by specialists only. Incompatible changes or developments may occur at any time without prior notice).
		The content of the field f can be a single field name or an identifier like oref->attr. The second option allows you to access attributes of objects whose identity is not known until runtime - such as attributes of sub-class objects, to which a superclass reference points.
		The system searches for the field to be assigned in the following order:
		Example
	Variant 4b
		Effect
		Example
	Variant 4c
		Effect
	Variant 4f
		Effect
		Exceptions
		Related
		Additional help
ASSIGN
	Variant 4b
		Effect
		Example
		Example
		Example
ASSIGN - TABLES Work Areas in the Main Program Group
ASSIGN LOCAL COPY OF MAIN TABLE FIELD
	Variant 4c
		Note
		Effect
		Example
ASSIGN
UNASSIGN
	Basic form
		Effect
		Related
		Additional help
Logical Expressions
	Note
	Note
	Exceptions
	Additional help
Logical Expressions - Relational Operators For All Data Types
	Note
	Additional help
Logical Expressions - Comparison Operators for Character-Type Fields
	Additional help
Logical Expressions - Comparison Operators for Byte-Type Fields
Logical Expressions - Relational Operators for Bit Masks
	Note
	Additional help
Logical Expressions - Test for Interval Assignment
	Additional help
Logical Expressions - Comparison with Initial Value
	Example
	Additional help
Logical Expressions - Is a Field Symbol Assigned?
	Example
	Additional help
Logical Expressions - Valid Reference?
	Example
	Exceptions
Logical Expressions - Test for Existence of a Formal Parameter
	Note
	Example
	Note
Logical Expressions - Check for Transfer of an Actual Parameter
	Basic form
		Effect
		Notes
		Example
		Related
Logical Expressions - Comparison with a Selection Criterion
	Note
	Example
	Note
	Example
	Note
	Additional help
Flow Control
Conditional Branches
	Basic form
		Effect
		Notes
		Additional help
ELSEIF
	Basic form
		Effect
		Example
		Related
		Additional help
ELSE
	Basic form
		Effect
		Example
		Related
		Additional help
ENDIF
	Basic form
		Effect
		Additional help
CASE
	Basic form
		Effect
		Example
		Notes
		Related
		Additional help
WHEN
	Variants:
	Variant 1
		Addition:
			Effect
		Addition
			Effect
			Note
	Variant 2
		Effect
		Additional help
ENDCASE
	Basic form
		Effect
		Additional help
ON CHANGE OF
	Basic form
		Addition:
			Effect
			Note
			Example
		Addition
			Effect
			Example
			Notes
			Related
ENDON
	Basic form
		Effect
Loops
DO
	Variants:
	1. DO. 

2. DO n TIMES.
	Variant 1
		Extras:
			Effect
			Example
			Note
		Addition 1
			Effect
			Example
			Note
		Addition 2
			Effect
	Variant 2
		Extras:
			Effect
			Example
			Related
			Note
			Exceptions
			Additional help
ENDDO
	Basic form
		Effect
		Additional help
WHILE
	Basic form
		Extras:
			Effect
			Example
			Notes
		Addition
			Effect
			Example
			Note
		Addition 2
			Effect
			Exceptions
			Unzulässiger Zugriff auf Tabellen, Strings, Feld- oder Objektreferenzen innerhalb des Bereichs, der durch den RANGE-Zusatz angegeben ist. 
Runtime Error: DO_WHILE_VARY_ILLEGAL_ACCESS
			Related
			Additional help
ENDWHILE
	Basic form
		Effect
CHECK - Within loops
	Basic form
		Effect
		Note
		Related
		Additional help
Continue
	Basic form
		Effect
		Example
		Related
EXIT in Loops
	Basic form
		Effect
		Note
		Example
		Note
		Related
		Additional help
Processing Large Datasets
Processing Large Datasets
Internal tables
Internal Tables
Internal Tables - Overview
Internal Tables - Overview
	What Are Internal Tables?
		Data Types
		Data Objects
	Using Internal Tables
	Data Exchange with Internal Tables
	Operations on Internal Tables
	Selecting a Table Type
	Declaring Internal Tables
	Internal Tables as Parameters for Routines
TABKIND - Internal Table Types
	Alternatives:
		Effect
	Alternative 1
		Effect
	Alternative 2
		Effect
	Alternative 3
		Effect
	Alternative 4
		Effect
	Alternative 5
		Effect
Generic Table Types
Standard Keys in Internal Tables
KEYDEF - Defining a Key for Internal Tables
	Alternatives:
		Effect
	Alternative 1
		Effect
	Alternative 2
		Effect
		Note
	Alternative 3
		Effect
		Note
Pseudo Component TABLE_LINE for Internal Tables
Attributes of Objects as Internal Table Keys
	Notes
	Example
Changing Individual Rows of Internal Tables
	Note for Sorted Tables and Hashed Tables
General Performance Notes for Internal Tables
	Sharing Internal Tables
	OCCURS Value or INITIAL SIZE Specification
	Index Management
	Filling Line-by-line
	Filling and Deleting by Blocks
	Reading from the Datbase
	Changing Fields Using Selective Field Transport
Optimized Key Operations for Tables of Types SORTED and HASHED TABLE
	Accessing single records using READ
		Examples
	Partially Sequential Quantity Access Using the WHERE Condition
		Examples
		Notes
			Statements Explicitly Specifying the Work Area
Inserting and/or Deleting Table Lines Within LOOP ... ENDLOOP
Cost of Index Maintenance when Inserting into and Deleting from Internal Tables
Rules for locale-specific sorting
Internal Tables
APPEND
	Variants:
	Variant 1
		Effect
		Examples
		Notes
	Variant 2
		Effect
		Example
		Note
	Variant 3
		Effect
		Example
		Notes
		Exceptions
INSERT itab
INSERT - Insert into an Internal Table
	Variants:
	Variant 1
		Effect
		Notes
		Example
	Variant 2
		Effect
		Example
	Variant 3
		Effect
		Notes
		Example
	Variant 4
		Effect
		Notes
		Exceptions
MODIFY - Changing Individual Rows in an Internal Table
	Variants:
	Variant 1
		Effect
	Variant 2
		Effect
	Variant 3
		Effect
		Notes
		Example
		Notes
		Notes
		Exceptions
COLLECT
	Basic form
		Extras:
			Effect
			Notes
			Example
		Addition 1
			Effect
		Addition 2
			Effect
		Addition 3
			Effect
			Note
			Exceptions
READ - Reading an Internal Table
	Variants:
		Effect
	Variant 1
	Variant 2
		Effect
		Notes
	Variant 3
		Effect
		Notes
	Variant 4
		Effect
		Notes
		Exceptions
READ TABLE ... Output
Additions for Output With READ TABLE
	Extras:
	Addition 1
		Effect
	Addition 2a
		Effect
		Note
	Addition 2b
		Effect
	Addition 3a
		Effect
		Notes
	Addition 3b
		Effect
	Addition 4a
		Effect
		Notes
	Addition 4b
		Effect
LOOP - Loop on an internal table
	Basic form
		Extras:
			Effect
			If the internal table is empty, all the statements between LOOP and ENDLOOP are ignored. 

The sequence in which the entries occur in the loop depend on the table type specified in the table definition (unless the table has been explicitly resorted using the SORT statement:
			Example
			Notes
			You cannot change a complete internal table by using a loop on it. To change a complete table, use the REFRESH, CLEAR, FREE, MOVE, SORT, or SELECT ... INTO/APPENDING statements. This rule also applies to passing a table as a CHANGING VALUE parameter.
			If you use SUM in the LOOP processing, and also explicitly declare an output area wa, this area must have the same line type as the internal table itab.
		Addition 1
		Addition 2
			Effect
			Notes
			Example
		Addition 3
			Effect
			Example
		Addition 4
			Effect
			Example
			Example
			Example
			Example
			Notes
			Exceptions
ENDLOOP
	Basic form
		Effect
AT - Control breaks with internal tables
	Variants:
		Effect
		Notes
		Note
	Variant 1
	Variant 2
		Effect
		Example
		Notes
		If you use AT within a LOOP with an explicitly-specified output area, the area must be compatible with the line type of the internal table so that it can be initialized properly (as described above) at the start of a new control level.
		You can restrict control break criteria further, regardless of whether they were defined statically or dynamically, by specifying offset and/or length.
	Variant 3
	Variant 4
		Effect
		Example
SUM - Control Level Processing for Internal Tables
	Basic form
		Effect
		Example
		Notes
		Exceptions
ENDAT
	Basic form
		Effect
		Additional help
DELETE - Deleting from an Internal Table
	Variants:
		Effect
		Note
	Variant 1
		Effect
		Note
	Variant 2
		Effect
	Variant 3
		Effect
	Variant 4
		Effect
	Variant 5
		Effect
	Variant 6
		Extras:
			Effect
			Notes
		Addition 1
			Effect
		Addition 2
			Effect
			Example
	Variant 7
		Extras:
			Effect
		Addition 1
			Effect
		Addition 2
			Effect
			Notes
			Note
REFRESH - Delete an internal table
	Variants:
	Variant 1
		Effect
		Notes
		Note
	Variant 2
		Note
		Effect
		Example
	Variant 3
		Note
		Effect
		Exceptions
DESCRIBE - Return attributes of an internal table
	Basic form
		Effect
		Note
		Extras:
		Addition 1
			Effect
			Note
			Example
		Addition 2
			Effect
			Example
		Addition 3
			Effect
			Example
			Notes
EDITOR-CALL - Call editor for internal tables
	Basic form
		Extras:
			Effect
			Notes
		Addition 1
			Effect
		Addition 2
		Addition 3
			Effect
			Example
SORT - Sorting an Internal Table
	Basic form
		Extras:
			Effect
		Addition 1
			Effect
		Addition 2
			Effect
		Addition 3
			Effect
		Addition 4
			Effect
			Note
			Example
		Addition 5
			Effect
			Notes
			Notes
			Exceptions
Extracts
FIELD-GROUPS
	Basic form
		Effect
		Example
		Note
INSERT - Insert into a field group
	Basic form
		Effect
		Notes
		Exceptions
EXTRACT
	Basic form
		Effect
		Notes
		Exceptions
LOOP
LOOP - Loop on an extract dataset
	Basic form
		Effect
		Notes
		Example
		Related
		Exceptions
SORT - Sorting an Extract Dataset
	Basic form
		Extras:
			Effect
		Addition 1
			Effect
		Addition 2
			Effect
		Addition 3
			Effect
		Addition 4
			Effect
			Note
			Example
			Example
		Addition 5
			Effect
			Notes
			Notes
			Exceptions
AT - Control Level Processing
AT - Control breaks with extracts
	Variants:
		Effect
		Notes
	Variant 1
	Variant 2
		Effect
		Example
		Notes
	Variant 3
	Variant 4
		Effect
	Variant 5
		Addition:
			Effect
		Addition
			Effect
CNT
	Basic form
		Effect
		Related
		Additional help
SUM - for Extracts
	Basic form
		Effect
		Related
		Additional help
Saving Data Externally
External Data Storage
Saving Data Objects as Clusters
Data Clusters
SAP Memory and ABAP Memory
SAP and ABAP Memory
	Global SAP memory
	Local SAP memory
	ABAP memory
EXPORT TO MEMORY/DATABASE/SHARED BUFFER
EXPORT - Export data
	Variants:
	Variant 1
		Extras:
			Effect
			Notes
			You cannot export the header lines of internal tables because specifying the name of an internal table with a header line always exports the actual table data.
			Example
		Addition 1
			Effect
		Addition 2
			Effect
		Addition 3
			Effect
		Addition 4
			Effect
			Note
	Variant 2
		Extras:
			Effect
			Notes
			Data, object, and interface references cannot be exported.
			Example
		Addition 1
			Effect
		Addition 2
			Effect
		Addition 3
			Effect
		Addition 4
			Effect
			Note
	Variant 3
		Extras:
			Effect
			Notes
			You cannot export the header lines of internal tables because specifying the name of an internal table with a header line always exports the actual table data.
		Addition 1
			Effect
		Addition 2
			Effect
		Addition 3
			Effect
		Addition 4
			Effect
			Note
			Related
	Variant 4
		Extras:
			Effect
			Notes
			You cannot export the header lines of internal tables because specifying the name of an internal table with a header line always exports the actual table data.
		Addition 1
			Effect
		Addition 2
			Effect
		Addition 3
			Effect
		Addition 4
			Effect
		Addition 5
			Effect
	Variant 5
		Extras:
			Effect
			Notes
			Example
		Addition 1
			Effect
		Addition 2
			Effect
		Addition 3
			Effect
		Addition 4
			Effect
			Example
		Addition 5
			Effect
	Variant 6
		Extras:
			Effect
			Notes
			You must also enter the work area explicitly in classes - that is, addition 5 is mandatory.
			Example
		Addition 1
			Effect
		Addition 2
			Effect
		Addition 3
			Effect
		Addition 4
			Note
			Effect
		Addition 5
			Effect
			Example
		Addition 6
			Effect
		Addition 7
			Effect
			Note
			Exceptions
	Variant 7
		Note
	Variant 8
		Effect
		Note
		Example
		Exceptions
		Additional help
Runtime Errors for EXPORT TO DATABASE
Exceptions at EXPORT TO DATABASE
IMPORT FROM MEMORY/DATABASE/SHARED BUFFER
IMPORT - Get data
	Variants:
	Variant 1
		Extras:
			Effect
		Addition 1
		Addition 2
			Effect
		Addition 3
			Effect
		Addition 4
			Effect
		Addition 5
			Effect
		Addition 6
			Effect
		Addition 7
			Effect
		Addition 8
			Effect
		Addition 9
			Effect
		Addition 10
			Effect
	Variant 2
		Extras:
			Effect
		Addition 1
		Addition 2
			Effect
		Addition 3
			Effect
		Addition 4
			Effect
		Addition 5
			Effect
		Addition 6
			Effect
		Addition 7
			Effect
		Addition 8
			Effect
		Addition 9
			Effect
		Addition 10
			Effect
	Variant 3
		Extras:
			Effect
			Note
		Addition 1
		Addition 2
			Effect
		Addition 3
			Effect
			Notes
		Addition 4
			Effect
		Addition 5
			Effect
		Addition 6
			Effect
			Related
	Variant 4
		Extras:
			Effect
			Notes
		Addition 1
		Addition 2
			Effect
		Addition 3
			Effect
		Addition 4
			Effect
		Addition 5
			Effect
		Addition 6
			Effect
		Addition 7
			Effect
	Variant 5
		Extras:
			Effect
			Example
			Notes
		Addition 1
		Addition 2
			Effect
		Addition 3
			Effect
		Addition 4
			Effect
			Example
	Variant 6
		Extras:
			Effect
			Example
			Notes
		Addition 1
		Addition 2
			Effect
		Addition 3
			Effect
			Example
		Addition 4
			Note
			Effect
		Addition 5
			Effect
			Example
		Addition 6
		Addition 7
			Effect
		Addition 8
			Effect
		Addition 9
			Effect
		Addition 10
			Effect
		Addition 11
			Effect
		Addition 12
			Effect
		Addition 13
			Effect
		Addition 14
			Effect
		Addition 15
			Effect
	Variant 7
		Note
	Variant 8
		Note
		Extras:
			Effect
		Addition 1
		Addition 2
			Effect
	Variant 9
		Extras:
			Effect
		Addition 1
			Effect
		Addition 2
			Effect
			Example
	Variant 10
		Effect
		Note
		Example
		Exceptions
		Additional help
Exceptions for IMPORT FROM DATABASE
IMPORT - Exceptions,,
FREE MEMORY
FREE - Release an Area in ABAP Memory
	Basic form
		Addition:
			Effect
			Notes
		Addition
			Effect
			Related
			Additional help
DELETE -Delete a Data Cluster
DELETE - Delete a Data Cluster
	Variants:
	Variant 1
		Effect
		Notes
		Related
		Additional help
	Variant 2
		Addition:
			Effect
		Addition
			Effect
	Variant 3
		Addition:
			Effect
			Example
		Addition
			Effect
			Example
	Variant 4
		Addition:
			Effect
			Example
		Addition 1
			Effect
			Example
			Additional help
Working With Files
Working with Files
OPEN DATASET
OPEN DATASET
	Basic form 1
		Extras:
			Effect
			Example
			Notes
			Note
		Addition 1a
			Effect
			Note
		Addition 1b
			Effect
		Addition 1c
			Effect
			Note
		Addition 1d
			Effect
		Addition 2a
			Effect
		Addition 2b
			Effect
			Note
		Addition 2c
			Effect
		Addition 2d
			Effect
			Notes
		Addition 3
			Effect
			Note
		Addition 4
			Effect
		Addition 5
			Effect
			Notes
		Addition 6
			Effect
			Note
			Example
		Addition 7
			Effect
			Example
		Addition 8
			Effect
			Example
			Exceptions
			Note
			Related
			Additional help
TRANSFER
TRANSFER - Writing to a File
	Basic form
		Addition:
			Effect
			Example
			Notes
			Exceptions
		Addition
			Effect
			Related
			Additional help
READ DATASET
READ DATASET - Read From a File
	Basic form
		Extras:
			Effect
			Example
			Notes
		Addition 1
			Effect
			Example
		Addition 2
			Effect
			Example
			Exceptions
			Note
			Related
			Additional help
GET DATASET
GET DATASET
	Basic form
		Extras:
			Effect
		Addition 1
			Effect
			Example
		Addition 2
			Example
			Notes
			Related
SET DATASET
SET DATASET
	Basic form
		Extras:
			Effect
		Addition 1
			Effect
			Example
		Addition 2
			Effect
			Example
			Exceptions
			Related
CLOSE DATASET
CLOSE DATASET
	Basic form 1
		Effect
		Exceptions
		Note
		Related
		Additional help
DELETE DATASET
DELETE - Delete a file
	Basic form
		Effect
		Notes
		Exceptions
		Related
		Additional help
Modularization Techniques
Modularization Techniques
Organization of Modularization Units
Organization of Data Areas and Modularization Units
	Terminal sessions, sessions and program groups
	Common data areas
	Assignment of screens, lists and user interfaces
Source code modules
Source Code Modules
Macros
Macros
DEFINE
DEFINE
	Basic form
		Effect
		Example
		Notes
		Additional help
END-OF-DEFINITION
END-OF-DEFINITION
	Basic form
		Effect
Include Programs
Include Programs
INCLUDE
INCLUDE prog
	Basic form 1
		Effect
		Example
		Notes
		Additional help
Procedures
Procedures
Literals as Actual Parameters for Typed Formal Parameters
Literals as Actual Parameters in FORM Routine Calls, Function Modules and Methods with Typed Formal Parameters
	Passing text literals
	Passing numeric literals to:
Subroutines
Subroutines
FORM
FORM
	Basic form
		Extras:
			Effect
			Example
			Notes
		Addition 1
			Effect
			Example
		Addition 2
			Effect
			Note
			Example
		Addition 3
			Effect
			Example
		Addition 4
			Effect
			Note
			Additional help
ENDFORM
ENDFORM
	Basic form
		Effect
		Additional help
PERFORM
PERFORM
	Variants:
	Variant 1
		Extras:
			Effect
			Note
			Example
		Addition 1
			Effect
			Example
		Addition 2
		Addition 3
			Effect
			Example
			Notes
	Variant 2
		Extras:
			Effect
			Note
			Example
			Notes
		Addition 1
			Effect
		Addition 2
			Effect
		Addition 3
			Effect
		Addition 4
			Effect
	Variant 3
		Effect
	Variant 4
		Extras:
			Effect
			Notes
		Addition 1
			Effect
	Variant 5
		Notes
	Variant 6
		Extras:
			Effect
			Notes
		Addition 1
			Effect
		Addition 2
			Effect
		Addition 3
			Effect
		Addition 4
			Effect
			Notes
			Exceptions
			Additional help
Function modules
Function Modules
Interfaces of Function Modules
Function Module Interfaces
FUNCTION
FUNCTION
	Basic form
		Effect
		Note
		Additional help
ENDFUNCTION
ENDFUNCTION
	Basic form
		Effect
		Additional help
CALL FUNCTION
CALL FUNCTION
	Variant 1
		Extras:
			Effect
			SY-SUBRC = 0:
			SY-SUBRC <> 0:
			Notes
		Addition 1
			Effect
		Addition 2
			Effect
		Addition 3
			Effect
		Addition 4
			Effect
		Addition 5
			Effect
			Note
			Example
		Addition 6
			Effect
			Example
		Addition 7
			Effect
			Example
			Exceptions
			Additional help
CALL CUSTOMER-FUNCTION
CALL CUSTOMER-FUNCTION
	Variant 6
		Extras:
			Effect
			Note
RAISE
RAISE - Raising an Exception Defined Using the EXCEPTIONS Addition
	Basic form 1
		Effect
		Example
		Exceptions
		Runtime Error:
		Related
		Additional help
Methods
Methods
Special Topics
Special Techniques
The SAP Authorization Concept
The SAP Authorization Concept
	Authorization field
	Authorization object
	Authorization
	Authorization profile
	User master record
	Authorization check
	Authorization assignment
AUTHORITY-CHECK
AUTHORITY-CHECK
	Basic form
		Effect
		Note
		Example
		Additional help
Exception Handling
Exception Handling
	Exceptions
	Class-Based Exceptions
	Preceding Concepts
		Pre-Defined Exceptions in the Runtime Environment
		User-Specific Exceptions in Procedures
Class-Based Exceptions
Class-Based Exceptions
	GET_TEXT: Returns a text description of the exception
	GET_SOURCE_POSITION: Returns the point at which the exception occurred
	TEXTID: Used to define different texts for exceptions of a particular exception class. Affects the result of the method GET_TEXT. For more details on assigning texts to exceptions, see Exception Texts.
	PREVIOUS: If one exception is mapped to another, this attribute stores the original exception, which allows the system to build a chain of exceptions.
	KERNEL_ERRID: Contains the name of the appropriate runtime error if the exception was triggered from the kernel. If the exception was raised using a RAISE EXCEPTION, this attribute is initial.
	CX_STATIC_CHECK
	CX_DYNAMIC_CHECK
	CX_NO_CHECK
TRY
TRY
	Basic form
		Effect
		Related
		Additional help
CATCH
CATCH - Definition of an Exception Handler in a TRY Block
	Basic form
		Addition:
			Effect
			Example
			Example
		Addition
			Effect
			Example
			Related
			Additional help
CLEANUP
CLEANUP
	Basic form
		Effect
		Example
		Related
		Addition
			Effect
			Additional help
ENDTRY
ENDTRY
	Basic form
		Effect
		Related
		Additional help
RAISE EXCEPTION
RAISE EXCEPTION
	Variants:
		Effect
	Variant 1
		Addition:
			Example
		Addition 1
			Effect
			Example
	Variant 2
		Example
		Related
		Additional help
RAISING Addition for Procedures
Addition
	Effect
	Additional help
Exception Texts
Exceptions
	Example
	Example
	Additional help
Exceptions in ABAP Statements
Exceptions in ABAP Statements
	Example
		Exception that was not handled
		Handling exceptions using/with exception classes
		Handling exceptions as catchable runtime errors
Exception Classes for ABAP Statements
Exception Classes for ABAP Statements
Catchable Runtime Errors
Catchable Runtime Errors
CATCH SYSTEM-EXCEPTIONS
CATCH - Catching Runtime Errors
	Basic form
		Effect
		rc ... rcn must be numeric literals.
		You can include a CATCH ... ENDCATCH block anywhere where an IF ... ENDIF block can be included - that is, local to an event, not cross-event
		The block can be nested to any depth
		Exceptions will only be caught in the current call level. For example, PERFORM or CALL FUNCTION statements within a CATCH...ENDCATCH block will not be executed.
		You can only use CATCH...ENDCATCH if you are not already using the class-based exceptions mechanism in the same context - that is within the same method, subroutine, function module, or ABAP event.
		One of the pre-defined exception groups, in which catchable runtime errors are summarized. You cannot use abstract exception classes here either.
		OTHERS, all remaining catchable SYSTEM-EXCEPTION runtime errors. If you declare OTHERS, it must be as the last SYSTEM-EXCEPTION in the list.
		The keyword documentation, where catchable runtime errors are declared explicitly
		Exception groups
		Example
		Examples
		Notes
ENDCATCH
ENDCATCH
	Basic form
		Effect
Alphabetical Overview of Catchable Runtime Errors
	ADDF_INT_OVERFLOW
	ASSIGN_CASTING_ILLEGAL_CAST
	ASSIGN_CASTING_UNKNOWN_TYPE
	ASSIGN_FIELD_NOT_IN_RANGE
	BCD_FIELD_OVERFLOW
	BCD_OVERFLOW
	BCD_ZERODIVIDE
	COMPUTE_ACOS_DOMAIN
	COMPUTE_ASIN_DOMAIN
	COMPUTE_ATAN_DOMAIN
	COMPUTE_BCD_OVERFLOW
	COMPUTE_COSH_DOMAIN
	COMPUTE_COSH_OVERFLOW
	COMPUTE_COS_DOMAIN
	COMPUTE_COS_LOSS
	COMPUTE_EXP_DOMAIN
	COMPUTE_EXP_RANGE
	COMPUTE_FLOAT_DIV_OVERFLOW
	COMPUTE_FLOAT_MINUS_OVERFLOW
	COMPUTE_FLOAT_PLUS_OVERFLOW
	COMPUTE_FLOAT_TIMES_OVERFLOW
	COMPUTE_FLOAT_ZERODIVIDE
	COMPUTE_INT_ABS_OVERFLOW
	COMPUTE_INT_DIV_OVERFLOW
	COMPUTE_INT_MINUS_OVERFLOW
	COMPUTE_INT_PLUS_OVERFLOW
	COMPUTE_INT_TIMES_OVERFLOW
	COMPUTE_INT_ZERODIVIDE
	COMPUTE_LOG10_ERROR
	COMPUTE_LOG_ERROR
	COMPUTE_MATH_DOMAIN
	COMPUTE_MATH_ERROR
	COMPUTE_MATH_LOSS
	COMPUTE_MATH_OVERFLOW
	COMPUTE_MATH_UNDERFLOW
	COMPUTE_POW_DOMAIN
	COMPUTE_POW_RANGE
	COMPUTE_SINH_DOMAIN
	COMPUTE_SINH_OVERFLOW
	COMPUTE_SIN_DOMAIN
	COMPUTE_SIN_LOSS
	COMPUTE_SQRT_DOMAIN
	COMPUTE_TANH_DOMAIN
	COMPUTE_TAN_DOMAIN
	COMPUTE_TAN_LOSS
	CONNE_IMPORT_WRONG_COMP_DECS
	CONNE_IMPORT_WRONG_COMP_LENG
	CONNE_IMPORT_WRONG_COMP_TYPE
	CONNE_IMPORT_WRONG_FIELD_DECS
	CONNE_IMPORT_WRONG_FIELD_LENG
	CONNE_IMPORT_WRONG_FIELD_TYPE
	CONNE_IMPORT_WRONG_OBJECT_TYPE
	CONNE_IMPORT_WRONG_STRUCTURE
	CONVT_CODEPAGE
	CONVT_CODEPAGE_INIT
	CONVT_NO_NUMBER
	CONVT_OVERFLOW
	CREATE_DATA_ILLEGAL_DECIMALS
	CREATE_DATA_ILLEGAL_INIT_SIZE
	CREATE_DATA_ILLEGAL_LENGTH
	CREATE_DATA_LEN_NOT_ALLOWED
	CREATE_DATA_NOT_ALLOWED_TYPE
	CREATE_DATA_UNKNOWN_TYPE
	CREATE_OBJECT_CLASS_ABSTRACT
	CREATE_OBJECT_CLASS_NOT_FOUND
	CREATE_OBJECT_CREATE_PRIVATE
	CREATE_OBJECT_CREATE_PROTECTED
	DATA_LENGTH_NEGATIVE
	DATA_LENGTH_0
	DATA_LENGTH_TOO_LARGE
	DATA_OFFSET_NEGATIVE
	DATA_OFFSET_LENGTH_TOO_LARGE
	DATA_OFFSET_LENGTH_NOT_ALLOWED
	DATASET_CANT_CLOSE
	DATASET_CANT_OPEN
	DATASET_NO_PIPE
	DATASET_NO_POSITION
	DATASET_NOT_OPEN
	DATASET_OFFSET_TO_LARGE
	DATASET_PIPE_CLOSED
	DATASET_READ_ERROR
	DATASET_READ_ONLY
	DATASET_SEEK_ERROR
	DATASET_TOO_MANY_FILES
	DATASET_WRITE_ERROR
	DYN_CALL_METH_CLASSCONSTRUCTOR
	DYN_CALL_METH_CLASS_ABSTRACT
	DYN_CALL_METH_CLASS_NOT_FOUND
	DYN_CALL_METH_CONSTRUCTOR
	DYN_CALL_METH_EXCP_NOT_FOUND
	DYN_CALL_METH_NOT_FOUND
	DYN_CALL_METH_NOT_IMPLEMENTED
	DYN_CALL_METH_NO_CLASS_METHOD
	DYN_CALL_METH_PARAM_KIND
	DYN_CALL_METH_PARAM_LITL_MOVE
	DYN_CALL_METH_PARAM_MISSING
	DYN_CALL_METH_PARAM_NOT_FOUND
	DYN_CALL_METH_PARAM_TAB_TYPE
	DYN_CALL_METH_PARAM_TYPE
	DYN_CALL_METH_PARREF_INITIAL
	DYN_CALL_METH_PRIVATE
	DYN_CALL_METH_PROTECTED
	DYN_CALL_METH_REF_IS_INITIAL
	EXPORT_BUFFER_NO_MEMORY
	EXPORT_DATASET_CANNOT_OPEN
	EXPORT_DATASET_WRITE_ERROR
	GENERATE_SUBPOOL_DIR_FULL
	IMPORT_ALIGNMENT_MISMATCH
	IMPORT_TYPE_MISMATCH
	IMPORT_WRONG_END_POS
	MOVE_CAST_ERROR
	OPEN_DATASET_NO_AUTHORITY
	OPEN_PIPE_NO_AUTHORITY
	PERFORM_PROGRAM_NAME_TOO_LONG
	REFI_WRONG_SECTION
	REPLACE_INFINITE_LOOP
	RMC_COMMUNICATION_FAILURE
	RMC_INVALID_STATUS
	RMC_SYSTEM_FAILURE
	STRING_LENGTH_NEGATIVE
	STRING_LENGTH_TOO_LARGE
	STRING_OFFSET_NEGATIVE
	STRING_OFFSET_TOO_LARGE
	STRING_OFFSET_LENGTH_TOO_LARGE
	TEXTENV_CODEPAGE_NOT_ALLOWED
	TEXTENV_INVALID
	TEXTENV_KEY_INVALID
Assignment of Catchable Runtime Errors to Exception Groups
Assignment of Catchable Runtime Errors to Exception Groups
	Exception group: ARITHMETIC_ERRORS
		Notes
	Exception group: CONVERSION_ERRORS
		Note
	Exception group: CREATE_DATA_ERRORS
	Exception group: CREATE_OBJECT_ERRORS
	Exception group: DATA_ACCESS_ERRORS
	Exception group: DYNAMIC_CALL_METHOD_ERRORS
	Exception group: FILE_ACCESS_ERRORS
	Exception group: IMPORT_MISMATCH_ERRORS
	Exception group: LOCALIZATION_ERRORS
	Exception group: REMOTE_CALL_ERRORS
	Not assigned to an exception group:
Runtime Errors
Runtime Errors
Debugging
Help When Testing
ASSERT
ASSERT
	Basic form
		Extras:
			Effect
		Addition 1
			Effect
		Addition 2
			Effect
		Addition 3
			Effect
			Notes
BREAK-POINT
BREAK-POINT
	Basic form
		Extras:
			Effect
		Addition 1
			Effect
		Addition 2
			Effect
		Addition 3
			Note
			Effect
			Notes
GET RUN TIME
GET RUN TIME FIELD
	Basic form 5
		Effect
		Notes
		Example
		Note
		Related
		Related
		Additional help
SET RUN TIME CLOCK RESOLUTION
SET RUN TIME CLOCK RESOLUTION
	Variants:
		Effect
		Note
	Variant 1
		Effect
	Variant 2
		Effect
		Exceptions
		Additional help
SET RUN TIME ANALYZER
SET RUN TIME ANALYZER ON/OFF
	Variants:
		Effect
		Note
	Variant 1
		Effect
	Variant 2
		Effect
		Example
		Note
		Additional help
		Example
Standardized Microseconds
msn = standardized microseconds
Link to Performance Notes
Performance
SET EXTENDED CHECK
SET EXTENDED CHECK
	Basic form 12
		Effect
SYNTAX-TRACE
SYNTAX-TRACE
	Note
	Variants:
	Variant 1
		Effect
	Variant 2
		Effect
	Variant 3
		Effect
	Variant 4
		Effect
Time Stamp
Timestamps in ABAP
	Comparison and arithmetic
	Generating a timestamp
	Converting timestamps to the local time zone
Important notes about summertime rules
Converting Time Stamps
Converting timestamps into local time
	Differences between UTC time and local time or summertime
	Summertime rules
GET TIME STAMP FIELD f
GET TIME STAMP FIELD
	Basic form 6
		Effect
		Note
		Example
		Exceptions
		Related
CONVERT ... TIME STAMP ...
CONVERT - Converting Time Stamps
	Variants:
		Effect
	Variant 1
		Effect
	Variant 2
		Effect
	Variant 3
		Effect
	Variant 4
		Effect
		Example
		Notes
		Exceptions
		Related
GET TIME
GET TIME
	Basic form 4
		Addition:
			Effect
		Addition
			Effect
			Note
Setting the Language Key

Language Indicator.
SET LANGUAGE
SET
	Basic form 6
		Effect
		Notes
		Additional help
SET LOCALE
SET LOCALE
	Basic form 8
		Extras:
			Effect
		Addition 1
			Effect
		Addition 2
			Effect
			Notes
			Note
			Exceptions
			Related
			Additional help
GET LOCALE
GET LOCALE LANGUAGE
	Basic form 7
		Effect
		Related
		Additional help
Dynamic Program Processing
Dynamic Program Processing
Program
Dynamic Program Generation
INSERT REPORT
INSERT - Insert a Program
	Basic form
		Extras:
			Effect
			Example
			Notes
		Addition 1
			Effect
			Note
		Addition 2
			Effect
			Note
		Addition 3
			Effect
			Note
		Addition 4
			Effect
			Example
			Notes
		Addition 5
			Effect
			Example
			Note
		Addition 6
			Effect
			Example
		Addition 7
			Effect
			Example
		Addition 8
			Effect
			Example
		Addition 9
			Effect
			Exceptions
			Related
			Additional help
READ REPORT
READ - Read a program
	Basic form
		Addition:
			Effect
			Example
		Addition
			Note
			Effect
		Addition 2
			Effect
			Exceptions
			Related
			Additional help
DELETE REPORT
DELETE - Delete a program
	Note
	Basic form
		Addition:
			
			Effect
			Note
		Addition
			Effect
			Exceptions
			Related
EDITOR-CALL FOR REPORT
EDITOR-CALL - Call ABAP program editor
	Basic form
		Addition:
			Effect
			Note
		Addition
			Effect
			Example
			Related
SYNTAX-CHECK FOR itab
SYNTAX-CHECK FOR itab
	Note
	Basic form
		Extras:
			Effect
			Example
		Addition 1
			Effect
		Addition 2
			Effect
		Addition 3
			Effect
		Addition 4
			Effect
		Addition 5
			Effect
		Addition 6
			Effect
		Addition 7
			Effect
		Addition 8
			Effect
		Addition 9
			Effect
		Addition 10
			Effect
		Addition 11
			Effect
GENERATE REPORT/SUBROUTINE POOL
GENERATE - Generate a program
	Note
	Variants:
	Variant 1
		Extras:
			Effect
		Addition 1
			Effect
		Addition 2
			Effect
		Addition 3
			Effect
		Addition 4
			Effect
		Addition 5
			Effect
		Addition 6
			Effect
		Addition 7
			Effect
		Addition 8
			Effect
		Addition 9
			Effect
		Addition 10
			Effect
		Addition 11
			Note
	Variant 2
		Extras:
			Effect
			Notes
			Exceptions
			Related
			Additional help
LOAD REPORT
LOAD
	Note
	Basic form
	Variants:
	Variant 1
		Effect
	Variant 2
		Effect
	Variant 3
		Effect
	Variant 4
		Effect
	Variant 5
		Effect
	Variant 6
		Effect
	Variant 7
		Effect
	Variant 8
		Effect
	Variant 9
		Effect
	Variant 10
		Effect
	Variant 11
		Effect
	Variant 12
		Effect
	Variant 13
		Effect
	Variant 14
		Effect
	Variant 15
		Effect
	Variant 16
		Effect
	Variant 17
		Effect
	Variant 18
		Effect
	Variant 19
		Effect
	Variant 20
		Effect
	Variant 21
		Effect
	Variant 22
		Effect
	Variant 23
		Effect
	Variant 24
		Effect
	Variant 25
		Effect
	Variant 26
		Effect
	Variant 27
		Effect
	Variant 28
		Effect
	Variant 29
		Effect
	Variant 30
		Effect
	Variant 31
		Effect
	Variant 32
		Effect
	Variant 33
		Effect
	Variant 34
		Effect
	Variant 35
		Effect
	Variant 36
		Effect
	Variant 37
		Effect
	Variant 38
		Effect
	Variant 39
		Effect
	Variant 40
		Effect
	Variant 41
		Effect
	Variant 42
		Effect
	Variant 43
		Effect
	Variant 44
		Effect
		Exceptions
SCAN
SCAN
	Note
	Variants:
	Variant 1
		Extras:
			Effect
			Notes
		Addition 1
		Addition 2
			Effect
			Notes
		Addition 3
			Effect
		Addition 4
			Effect
		Addition 5
			Effect
			KEY_END
			STMNT_FROM
			STMNT_TO
			<>
			STRUC_TO
			BACK
		Addition 6
			Effect
		Addition 7
			Effect
		Addition 8
			Effect
			Example
			Note
		Addition 9
			Effect
			Note
		Addition 10
			Effect
		Addition 11
			Effect
		Addition 12
			Effect
			Note
		Addition 13
		Addition 14
		Addition 15
		Addition 16
		Addition 17
		Addition 18
			Effect
	Variant 2
		Extras:
		&ABAP_ADDITION _1&
		&ABAP_ADDITION _2&
		&ABAP_ADDITION _3&
		&ABAP_ADDITION _4&
		&ABAP_ADDITION _5&
		&ABAP_ADDITION _6&
			Effect
			Exceptions
Text elements
Text Elements
	Example
	Notes
INSERT TEXTPOOL
INSERT - Insert text elements
	Basic form
		Addition:
			Effect
			Example
			Note
		Addition
			Note
			Effect
			Notes
			Exceptions
			Related
READ TEXTPOOL
READ - Read text elements
	Basic form
		Addition:
			Effect
			Example
		Addition
			Note
			Effect
			Exceptions
			Related
DELETE TEXTPOOL
DELETE - Delete text elements
	Note
	Basic form
		Addition:
			Effect
			Example
		Addition
			Note
			Effect
			Exceptions
			Related
SCREEN

EXPORT DYNPRO
EXPORT - Export a screen
	Note
	Basic form
		Effect
		Related
IMPORT DYNPRO
IMPORT DYNPRO - Import a screen
	Note
	Basic form
		Effect
		Related
DELETE DYNPRO
DELETE - Delete a screen
	Note
	Basic form
		Effect
		Example
		Related
SYNTAX-CHECK FOR DYNPRO
SYNTAX-CHECK FOR DYNRPO
	Basic form
		Extras:
			Effect
			Example
		Addition 1
			Effect
		Addition 2
			Effect
		Addition 3
			Effect
GENERATE DYNPRO
GENERATE - Generate a screen
	Note
	Extras:
		Effect
	Addition 1
		Effect
	Addition 2
		Effect
		Related
Special Statements for Applications
Special ABAP Statements for Applications
INFOTYPES
INFOTYPES
	Basic form
		Extras:
			Effect
			Example
		Addition 1
			Effect
			Example
		Addition 2
			Effect
			Example
		Addition 3
			Effect
			Example
		Addition 4
			Effect
			Example
		Addition 5
			Effect
			Note
PROVIDE
PROVIDE
	Variants:
		Effect
	Variant 1
		Effect
		Notes
		Example
		Exceptions
	Variant 2
		Effect
		Notes
		Example
		Related
ENDPROVIDE
ENDPROVIDE
	Basic form
		Effect
The ENDPROVIDE statement closes a loop introduced by PROVIDE.
ABAP User Dialogs
ABAP Screens
Screens
	Screen Keywords:
Process
	Variants:
	Variant 1
		Effect
		Examples
	Variant 2
		Effect
		Examples
	Variant 3
		Effect
		Examples
	Variant 4
		Effect
		Example
		Additional help
FIELD
	Basic form
		Extras:
			Effect
			Additional help
		Addition 1
			Effect
			Example
		Addition 2
			Effect
		Addition 3
			Effect
		Addition 4
			Effect
		Addition 5
			Effect
		Addition 6
			Effect
		Addition 7
			Effect
MODULE ... ON
SELECT
	SQL interface
VALUES
CHAIN
	Basic form
		Effect
		Note
ENDCHAIN
	Basic form
	Effect
LOOP
	Note
	Variant 1
	Effect
	Addition
	Effect
	Variant 2
	Effect
	Addition 1
	Addition 2
	Effect
	Note
	Addition 3
	Effect
	Note
	Example
	Note
	Addition 4
	Addition 5
	Variant 3
	Effect
ENDLOOP
	Basic form
	Effect
	Additional help
CALL SUBSCREEN
	Basic form
	Variants:
		Effect
		Notes
	Variant 1
		Effect
		Additional help
ABAP Statements for Screens
Modifying Screens using the SCREEN Table
System Table SCREEN
LOOP - Loop on screen fields
	Basic form
		Effect
		Addition
			Effect
			Note
			Related
			MODIFY SCREEN
MODIFY - Change the attributes of a screen field
	Basic form
		Addition:
			Effect
			Note
		Addition
			Effect
			Note
			Related    LOOP AT SCREEN... ENDLOOP, MODIFY itab
SET HOLD DATA
	Basic form 20
	Variants:
		Effect
	SUPPRESS DIALOG
	Basic form
		Effect
		Note
EXIT FROM STEP-LOOP
	Basic form
		Effect
		Additional help
CONTROLS
	Basic form
		Effect
		Related
ABAP Tab Control
CONTROLS ... TYPE TABSTRIP
	Basic form
		Effect
ABAP Tableview Control
CONTROLS ... TYPE TABLEVIEW
	Basic form
		Effect
		Example
		Example
		Additional help
REFRESH - Initialize a control
	Basic form
		Effect
		Note
		Related
		Examples
SET PF-STATUS
	Basic form 1
		Extras:
			Effect
			Note
			Example
			Example
			Note
			Notes
		Addition 1
			Effect
			Example
		Addition 2
			Effect
			Example
			Note
		Addition 3
			Effect
			Note
			Note
			Additional help
	GET PF-STATUS
	Basic form 10
		Extras:
			Effect
		Addition 1
			Effect
		Addition 2
			Effect
			Example
			Related
			Additional help
	SET TITLEBAR
	Basic form 2
		Extras:
			Effect
			Notes
		Addition 1
			Effect
			Example
		Addition 2
			Effect
			Example
			Note
SET CURSOR
	Variants: 

1. SET CURSOR FIELD f. 

2. SET CURSOR LINE line. 

3. SET CURSOR col line.
		Effect
	Variant 1
		Extras:
			Effect
			Note
		Addition 1
			Effect
		Addition 2
			Effect
			Notes
			Examples
	Variant 2
		Extras:
			Effect
		Addition 1
			Effect
			Example
	Variant 3
		Effect
		Note
		Example
		Related
		Additional help
GET CURSOR
	Variants:
	Variant 1
		Extras:
			Effect
			Note
			Example
		Addition 1
			Effect
		Addition 2
			Effect
		Addition 3
			Effect
		Addition 4
			Effect
			Note
			Effect
	Variant 2
		Extras:
			Effect
		Addition 1
			Effect
		Addition 2
			Effect
		Addition 3
			Effect
			Related
			Additional help
Selection Screens
	Notes
PARAMETERS
	Basic form
		Extras:
			Effect
			Notes
			Example
			Additional help
		Addition 1
			Effect
			Notes
		Addition 2
			Effect
			Example
		Addition 3
			Effect
			Note
			Example
		Addition 4
			Effect
			Notes
			Example
		Addition 5
			Effect
			Note
			Example
			Notes
		Addition 6
			Effect
			Note
		Addition 7
			Effect
			Note
		Addition 8
			Effect
		Addition 9
			Effect
			Note
		Addition 10
			Effect
		Addition 11
			Effect
		Addition 12
			Effect
			Notes
		Addition 13
			Effect
			Notes
		Addition 14
			Effect
		Addition 15
			Effect
		Addition 16
			Effect
			Note
			Example
			Note
			Note
			Example
			Note
			Note
			Example
			Note
		Addition 17
			Effect
			Example
		Addition 18
			Effect
			Note
			Example
		Addition 19
			Effect
		Addition 20
			Effect
			Note
			Example
		Addition 21
			Effect
			Notes
			Example
		Addition 22
			Effect
			Note
			Example
		Addition 23
			Effect
			Notes
			Related
RANGES
	Basic form
		Addition:
			Effect
			Note
		Addition
			Effect
			Additional help
SELECT-OPTIONS
	Variants:
		Notes
		Additional help
	Variant 1
		Extras:
			Effect
			Example
			Note
		Addition 1
			Effect
			Notes
			Example
		Addition 2
			Effect
			Example
			Notes
		Addition 3
			Effect
		Addition 4
			Effect
			Example
			Note
			Example
		Addition 5
			Effect
			Note
		Addition 6
			Effect
			Note
		Addition 7
			Effect
			Example
		Addition 8
			Effect
		Addition 9
			Effect
		Addition 10
			Effect
		Addition 11
			Effect
		Addition 12
			Effect
			Notes
		Addition 13
			Effect
		Addition 14
		Addition 15
			Effect
			Example
		Addition 16
		Addition 17
			Effect
			Example
		Addition 18
			Effect
	Variant 2
		Effect
		Notes
		Example
		Related
SELECTION-SCREEN - Defining Selection Screens
	Variants:
		Effect
	Variant 1a
		Extras:
			Notes
		Addition 1
			Effect
		Addition 2
			Effect
			Note
			Example
		Extras:
			Effect
		Addition 1
			Effect
		Addition 2
			Effect
			Note
			Note
			Example
			Note
SELECTION-SCREEN - Designing Selection Screens
	Variants:
		Effect
	Variant 1
		Extras:
			Effect
		Addition 1
		Addition 2
		Addition 3
			Effect
			Note
	Variant 2
		Effect
	Variant 3
		Effect
		Note
		Example
	Variant 4
		Effect
		Addition 1
			Effect
			Note
			Example
	Variant 5
	Variant 6
		Effect
		Example
		Note
	Variant 7
		Effect
		Note
	Variant 8
		Extras:
			Effect
	Variant 9
		Extras:
			Effect
		Addition 1
			Effect
			Example
			Note
			Example
		Addition 3
			Effect
	Variant 10
		Addition:
			Effect
			Notes
			Example
	Variant 11
		Effect
	Variant 12
		Effect
		Notes
		Example
		Additional help
SELECTION-SCREEN - Specifying Formats on a Selection Screen
	Note
	Example
	Additional help
SELECTION-SCREEN - Including Objects on Selection Screens
	Variants:
		Effect
	Variant 1
		Extras:
			Effect
			Note
		Addition 1a
		Addition 1b
			Effect
		Addition 2
			Effect
			Note
	Variant 2
		Extras:
			Effect
			Note
		Addition 1a
		Addition 1b
		Addition 4
			Effect
		Addition 2a
		Addition 2b
		Addition 3a
		Addition 3b
			Effect
			Note
	Variant 3
		Extras:
			Effect
			Note
		Addition 1
			Effect
		Addition 2
			Effect
	Variant 4
		Extras:
			Effect
			Note
		Addition 1
			Effect
		Addition 2
			Effect
	Variant 5
		Effect
		Addition:
			Notes
			Example
			Additional help
SELECTION-SCREEN: Special Variant for Logical Databases
	Variants:
	Variant 1
	Variant 2
	Variant 3
		Effect
		Extras:
			Effect
			Notes
			Example
	Variant 4
	Variant 6
		Extras:
			Effect
			Note
			Note
			Note
			Note
	Variant 5
	Variant 7
		Extras:
			Effect
			Note
			Note
			Note
			Notes
SELECTION-SCREEN: Special Variants for Logical Databases
SELECTION-SCREEN
Special additions in the selection include of the logical database
	Extras:
	Addition 1
	Addition 2
		Effect
		Note
		Notes
	Addition 3
		Effect
		Notes
CALL SELECTION SCREEN
	Basic form
		Extras:
			Effect
		Addition 1
			Effect
		Addition 2
			Effect
			Note
			Example
			Exceptions
AT SELECTION-SCREEN
AT - Events on selection screens
	Basic form
		Extras:
			Effect
			Note
			The AT SELECTION SCREEN ... events are implemented internally as FORM routines. All data objects created using DATA are therefore local - only recognized and addressable within the event. This also applies to GET events.
		Addition 1
			Effect
		Addition 2
			Effect
		Addition 3
			Effect
		Addition 4
			Effect
			Note
		Addition 5
			Effect
		Addition 6
			Effect
			Note
			Example
		Addition 7
			Effect
			Example
		Addition 8
			Effect
			Note
			Note
			Additional help
Modification Groups on Selection Screens
Assigning a Modication Group on the Selection Screen
	Addition
		Effect
		Example
SELECTION-SCREEN - Defining Titles and Texts on Selection Screens
	Notes
	Example
Dynamic Selections
Dynamic Selections on Selection Screens
	Procedure from selection screen:
		Note
		Note
Dynamic Calls
Dialog Calls for Entering Selections.
	FREE_SELECTIONS_INIT
	FREE_SELECTIONS_DIALOG
Lists
	Lists as Screens
	Lists in ABAP Programs
	Basic List
	Details Lists
	Structure of a List
	Print Lists
	Lists and ABAP Objects
	Lists and Unicode
LEAVE TO LIST-PROCESSING
	Basic form 5
		Addition:
			Effect
			Note
		Addition
			Effect
			Note
LEAVE LIST-PROCESSING
	Basic form
		Effect
		Note
		Related
Creating and Processing Lists
Creating and Editing Lists
Creating Simple Lists
WRITE - Output to a list
	Basic form
		Extras:
			Effect
			Examples
			Notes
		Addition 1
			Effect
			Notes
			Examples
			Notes
		Addition 2
			Effect
		Addition 3
			Effect
			Example
			Note
		Addition 4
WRITE - Output as checkbox
	Effect
	Note
	Examples
	Additional help
	Addition 5
WRITE - Output as symbol
	Effect
	Example
	Note
	Additional help
	Addition 6
WRITE - Output as icon
	Effect
	Example
	Note
	Additional help
	Addition 7
WRITE - Output as line
	Effect
	Note
	Example
	Additional help
	Note
	Addition 8
		Effect
		Notes
		Example
Predefined Output Formats of the WRITE Statement
	Output Length and Alignment
		Note
	Formats from the ABAP Dictionary
	Decimal Separators, Date and Time Format
	Formats for Character-Type, Byte-Type, and Numeric Data Objects
	Line Formats
WRITE - Formatting options
	Note
	Option
	Effect
	Option
	Effect
	Option
	Effect
	Option
	Option
	Effect
	Option
	Option
	Effect
	Option
	Option
	Effect
	Option
	Effect
	Option
	Effect
	Option
	Effect
	Example
	Option
	Effect
	Example
	Option
	Effect
	Example
	Option
	Effect
	Example
	Option
	Effect
	Example
	Option
	Effect
	Notes
	Example
	Option
	Effect
	Option
	Effect
	Note
	Example
	Option
	Effect
	Example
	Option
	Effect
	Examples
	Note
	Notes
	Examples
	Exceptions
WRITE - Output as checkbox
	Effect
	Note
	Examples
WRITE - Output as symbol
	Effect
	Example
	Note
WRITE - Output as icon
	Effect
	Example
	Note
WRITE - Output as line
	Effect
	Note
	Example
ULINE
	Variants:
	Variant 1
		Effect
		Note
	Variant 2
		Addition:
			Effect
			Note
		Addition
			Effect
SKIP
	Variants:
	Variant 1
		Effect
		Example
	Variant 2
		Effect
		Note
	Variant 3
		Effect
		Example
		Note
NEW-LINE
	Basic form
		Extras:
			Effect
			Notes
		Addition 1
			Effect
			Notes
			Example
		Addition 2
			Effect
			Example
NEW-PAGE
	Basic form
		Extras:
			Effect
			Notes
		Addition 1
			Effect
		Addition 2
			Effect
		Addition 3
			Effect
		Addition 4
			Effect
		Addition 5
			Effect
			Note
		Addition 6
			Effect
			Note
		Addition 7
			Effect
			Note
TOP-OF-PAGE
	Basic form
		Addition:
			Effect
			Notes
			Example
		Addition
			Effect
			Note
			Related
END-OF-PAGE
	Basic form
		Effect
		Note
		Related
SET BLANK LINES...
	Basic form 8
		Effect
		Example
Using Values Greater than 255 for the LINE-SIZE of a List
	Example
System Fields for Lists
a) Generating a list
b) Interactive Reporting
Notes on  the Use of LINE-COUNT in Lists
Creating Complex Lists
FORMAT
	Basic form
		Extras:
			Effect
			Notes
		Addition 1
			Effect
			Note
		Addition 2
			Effect
			Note
		Addition 3
			Effect
			Note
		Addition 4
			Effect
			Note
		Addition 5
			Effect
			Note
		Addition 6
			Effect
			Notes
		Addition 7
			Effect
			Example
			Notes
			Example
DETAILS
	Basic form
		Note
		Related
SUMMARY
	Basic form
		Note
		Related
RESERVE
	Basic form
		Effect
		Notes
		Note
POSITION
	Basic form
		Effect
		Notes
		Example
		Related
BACK
	Basic form
		Effect
		Example
		Notes
		Note
SCROLL
	Variants:
		Note
	Variant 1
		Extras:
			Effect
		Addition 1
			Effect
			Example
			Note
		Addition 2
			Effect
	Variant 2
		Extras:
			Effect
	Variant 3
		Extras:
			Effect
			Examples
			Note
	Variant 4
		Extras:
			Effect
			Example
	Variant 5
		Extras:
			Effect
			Example
		Addition 2
			Effect
			Note
	Variant 6
		Extras:
			Effect
		Addition 2
			Effect
			Note
	Variant 7
		Extras:
			Effect
		Addition 2
			Effect
			Example
	Variant 8
		Extras:
			Effect
			Note
SET LEFT SCROLL-BOUNDARY
	Basic form 12
		Addition:
			Effect
			Note
		Addition:
			Effect
			Note
			Example
			Example
SET COUNTRY
	Basic form 7
		Effect
		Notes
		Example
	Creating Interactive Lists
	HIDE
	Basic form
		Effect
		Note
		Exceptions
AT - Events in lists
variants:
1. AT LINE-SELECTION. 

2. AT USER-COMMAND. 

3. AT PFn.
	Variant 1
		Effect
		Note
		Example
	Variant 2
		Effect
		Example
	Variant 3
		Effect
		Notes
		Example
WINDOW
	Basic form
		Addition:
			Effect
		Addition
			Effect
			Example
			Note
			Example
READ - Reading a Line from a List
	Variants:
	Variant 1
		Extras:
			Effect
		Addition 1
			Effect
		Addition 2
			Effect
			Note
			Note
			Example
		Addition 3
			Effect
			Note
	Variant 2
		Extras:
			Effect
			Notes
	Variant 3
		Extras:
			Effect
	Variant 4
		Extras:
			Effect
MODIFY - Change a List Line
	Variants:
	Variant 1
		Extras:
			Effect
			Notes
		Addition 1
			Effect
		Addition 2
			Effect
			Example
		Addition 3
			Effect
			Note
			Example
		Addition 4
			Effect
			Note
		Addition 5
			Effect
			Notes
			Example
	Variant 2
		Extras:
			Effect
		Addition 1
		Addition 2
		Addition 3
		Addition 4
			Effect
	Variant 3
		Extras:
			Effect
		Addition 1
		Addition 2
		Addition 3
		Addition 4
			Effect
	Variant 4
		Extras:
			Effect
		Addition 1
		Addition 2
		Addition 3
		Addition 4
			Effect
SET USER-COMMAND
	Basic form 11
		Effect
		Notes
		Example
		Example
		Example
		Example
DESCRIBE LIST
DESCRIBE - Supply attributes of a list
	Variants:
		Effect
		Note
	Variant 1
		Addition:
			Effect
		Addition
			Effect
			Example
	Variant 2
		Addition:
			Effect
		Addition
			Effect
			Example
	Variant 3
		Addition:
			Effect
			Note
		Addition
			Effect
			Example
	Variant 4
		Extras:
			Effect
			Effect
		Addition 2
			Effect
		Addition 3
			Effect
		Addition 4
			Effect
		Addition 5
			Effect
		Addition 6
			Effect
		Addition 7
			Effect
			Note
		Addition 8
			Effect
			Note
		Addition 9
			Effect
			Example
			Examples
Printing in ABAP
Printing a list after it has been created
Printing a list while it is being created
	Print Parameters
The most important print parameters are:
	Control printing
	Setting the top and left-hand margins
	Examples:
NEW-PAGE PRINT ON
	Extras:
	Addition 8
		Effect
		Note
		Example
		Example
		Notes
NEW-PAGE PRINT ON (Obsolete Additions)
	Extras:
	Addition 9
		Note
		Effect
		Notes
NEW-PAGE PRINT OFF
	Extras:
	Addition 9
		Effect
	SET MARGIN
	Basic form 10
		Effect
		Note
PRINT-CONTROL
	Variants:
	Variant 1
		Extras:
			Effect
		Addition 1
		Addition 2
		Addition 3
		Addition 4
		Addition 5
		Addition 6
		Addition 7
			Effect
			Example
		Addition 8
			Effect
		Addition 9
			Effect
			Note
			Example
			&ABAP_HINT'
			Example
			Note
			Note
	Variant 2
		Effect
		Example
SUBMIT TO SAP-SPOOL
	Basic form
		Extras:
			Effect
		Additions
			Effect
			Note
		Addition 2
			Effect
			Example
			Example
MESSAGE
	Variants:
		Effect
	Variant 1
		Extras:
			Effect
			Example
		Addition 1
			Effect
			Note
			Example
			Note
		Addition 2
			Effect
			Note
		Addition 3
			Effect
			Example
		Addition 4
			Effect
			Note
			Example
	Variant 2
		Extras:
			Effect
		Addition 1
		Addition 2
		Addition 3
		Addition 4
			Effect
			Example
			Example
	Variant 3
		Extras:
			Effect
		Addition 1
		Addition 2
		Addition 3
		Addition 4
			Effect
			Example
	Variant 4
		Extras:
			Effect
		Addition 1
		Addition 2
			Effect
			Example
			Exceptions
ABAP Program Execution
Running ABAP Programs
Processing blocks

Processing Blocks
LOAD-OF-PROGRAM
	Basic form
		Effect
INITIALIZATION
	Basic form
		Effect
		Example
		Example
		Note
		Note
		Note
		Note
		Related
		Additional help
START-OF-SELECTION
	Basic form
		Effect
		Note
		Related
		Additional help
GET

GET
	Basic form 1
		Extras:
			Effect
			Notes
			Example
		Addition 1
			Effect
			Example
		Addition 2
			Effect
			Notes
			Examples
			Related
			Additional help
	Basic form
		Effect
		Related
		Additional help
	Basic form
		Extras:
			Effect
			Example
			Note
		Addition 1
		Addition 2
			Effect
			Notes
			Additional help
	Basic form
		Effect
		Additional help
CHECK


CHECK - Particularly for reports with logical databases
	Variants:
	Variant 1
		Effect
	Variant 2
		Effect
		Example
		Note
		Exceptions
		Cause: Wrong "OPTION" in SELECT-OPTIONS table or RANGES table 
Runtime Error: CHECK_SELOPT_ILLEGAL_OPTION
		Related
		Additional help
	Variants:
	Variant 1
		Effect
	Variant 2
		Effect
		Example
		Note
		Exceptions
		Related
		Additional help
STOP
	Basic form
		Effect
		Note
		Related
		Additional help
	Basic form
		Effect
		Note
		Related
Introductory Statements for Programs

Introductory Program Statements
	See also:
PROGRAM


PROGRAM
	Effect
	Additional help
REPORT
	Basic form
		Extras:
			Effect
			Example
			Note
		Addition 1
			Effect
		Addition 2
			Effect
			Notes
			Example
		Addition 3
			Effect
			Note
			Examples
		Addition 4
			Effect
			Note
			Example
		Addition 5
			Effect
			Note
			Example
			Additional help
FUNCTION-POOL
	Effect
	Additional help
	Basic form
		Extras:
			Effect
		Addition 1
			Effect
			Additional help
INTERFACE-POOL
	Basic form
		Effect
		Additional help
TYPE-POOL
	Basic form
		Effect
		Example
		Additional help

Screen Sequences


Screen Sequence
CALL SCREEN


CALL SCREEN - Call a screen
	Basic form
		Addition:
			Effect
			Note
		Addition
			Effect
			Note
			Exceptions
			Additional help
SET SCREEN


SET SCREEN
	Basic form 3
		Effect
		Example
		Notes
		Related
		Additional help
LEAVE SCREEN


LEAVE SCREEN
	Basic form 4
		Effect
		Note
		Related
		Additional help
LEAVE TO SCREEN


LEAVE TO SCREEN
	Basic form 3
		Effect
		Related
		Additional help
Starting programs


Calling Programs
Calling an Executable Program


Calling Reports
SUBMIT
	Basic forms:
		Extras:
			Effect
			Note
		Addition 1
			Effect
		Addition 2
			Effect
		Addition 4
			Effect
			Notes
		Addition 5
			Effect
		Addition 6
			Effect
		Addition 7
			Effect
		Addition 8
			Effect
			Note
		Addition 10
			Effect
			Note
			Note
			Example
			Effect
			Exceptions
			Additional help
Passing Parameters in SUBMIT 


Parameter passing with SUBMIT
	Variants:
		Effect
	Variant 1
		Effect
	Variant 2
		Effect
		Note
	Variant 3
		Effect
	Variant 4
		Effect
	Variant 5
		Effect
	Variant 6
		Effect
	Variant 7
		Effect
		Note
		Notes
		Examples
		Examples
		Additional help
Calling a Transaction


Calling Transactions
CALL TRANSACTION


CALL TRANSACTION - Call a transaction
	Basic form
		Extras:
			Effect
			Notes
			You can use a namespace prefix with transaction names.
			Example
		Addition 1
			Effect
		Addition 2
			Effect
			Note
		Addition 2a
			Effect
		Addition 2b
			Effect
		Addition 2c
			Effect
		Addition 2d
			Effect
			Example
			Exceptions
			Related
			Additional help
LEAVE TO TRANSACTION


LEAVE TO TRANSACTION
	Basic form 2
		Addition:
			Effect
			Note
			Examples
		Addition
			Effect
			Related
			Additional help
Dialog modules

Dialog Modules
CALL DIALOG
CALL DIALOG - Call a dialog module
	Basic form
		Extras:
			Effect
			Notes
		Addition 1
			Effect
		Addition 2
			Effect
		Addition 3
			Effect
			Examples
			Notes
		Addition 4
			Effect
			Notes
			Related
			Exceptions
			Related
			Additional help
Passing Data Using SPA/GPA Parameters

Transferring Data Using SPA/GPAParameters
SET PARAMETER


SET PARAMETER
	Basic form 5
		Effect
		Notes
		Example
		Exceptions
		Related
		Additional help
GET PARAMETER

GET PARAMETER
	Basic form 3
		Effect
		Notes
		Example
		Related
Fill Initial Screens with SPA/GPA Parameters 


Leaving a Called Program

Leaving Programs
	Basic form 1
		Effect
		Note
LEAVE

Basic form 7
	Effect
	Note
	Related
ABAP Database Accesses
ABAP Database Accesses
Relational Databases

Relational Databases
	The relational data model
	SQL
Open SQL

Open SQL
	Command set
	Note
SELECT
	Basic form
		Effect
		Note
		Example
		Note
		Notes
		Related
		Additional help
SELECT Clause

SELECT Clause
	Variants:
		Effect
		Note
		Note
	Variant 1
		Effect
		Examples
		Note
	Variant 2
		Effect
		Examples
		Notes
		Notes
	Variant 3
		Effect
		Example
		Note
		Additional help
INTO CLAUSE
	Variants:
		Effect
		Note
	Variant 1
		Effect
		Examples
	Variant 2
		Effect
		Example
		Notes
	Variant 3
		Example
	Variant 4
		Addition:
			Effect
			Example
		Addition
			Effect
			Example
	Variant 5
		Addition:
			Effect
		Addition
			Effect
	Variant 6
		Addition:
			Effect
		Addition
			Effect
	Variant 7
		Addition:
			Effect
		Addition
			Effect
			Note
			Notes
			Additional help
FROM Clause
	Variants:
		Extras:
			Effect
		Addition 1
			Effect
			Example
		Addition 2
			Effect
			Example
		Addition 3
			Effect
			Example
			Notes
		Addition 4
			Effect
	Variant 1
		Effect
		Example
	Variant 2
		Effect
		Example
		Note
		Example
		Note
		Note
	Variant 3
		Effect
		Example
		Note
		Note
		Example
	Variant 4
		Effect
		Examples
		Notes
		Exceptions
		Additional help
WHERE Clause
	Variants:
		Effect
		Notes
	Variant 1
		Effect
		Example
	Variant 2
		Effect
		Example
		Notes
		If you use FOR ALL ENTRIES IN itab, you cannot use a HAVING clause as well.
	Variant 3
		Effect
		Example
		Note
		Notes
		Additional help
GROUP-BY-Clause
	Variants:
	Variant 1
		Effect
		Example
		Notes
	Variant 2
		Effect
		Note
		Example
		Note
		Additional help
HAVING-Clause
	Variants:
		Effect
		Notes
		Note
	Variant 1
		Effect
		Example
	Variant 2
		Effect
		Example
		Note
		Additional help
ORDER-BY Clause


ORDER BY Clause
	Variants:
		Effect
	Variant 1
		Effect
		Example
		Notes
	Variant 2
		Effect
		Examples
		Notes
		Notes
	Variant 3
		Effect
		Note
		Example
		Additional help
ENDSELECT
	Basic form
		Effect
		Note
		Additional help
Subquery

Subquery
	Variants:
		Effect
	Variant 1
		Example
	Variant 2
		Example
	Variant 3
	Variant 4
		Notes
		If you use a subquery with a relational operator instead of EXISTS, you may only specify one column in the SELECT clause. This can be either a field from the database table or an aggregate expression.
		Example
		Additional help
INSERT


Inserting into the Database
	Variants:
		Effect
		Notes
	Variant 1
		Extras:
			Effect
			Example
		Addition 1
			Effect
			Example
		Addition 2
			Effect
	Variant 2
		Extras:
			Effect
			Note
		Addition 1
			Effect
		Addition 2
			Effect
		Addition 3
			Effect
	Variant 3
		Extras:
			Note
			Effect
			Example
			Notes
		Addition 1
			Effect
		Addition 2
			Effect
			Additional help
UPDATE
	Variants:
		Effect
		Notes
	Variant 1
		Extras:
			Effect
			Example
			Example
			Note
		Addition 1
			Effect
			Note
			Example
		Addition 2
			Effect
			Example
		Addition 3
			Effect
	Variant 2
		Extras:
			Effect
			Example
			Examples
		Addition 1
			Effect
		Addition 2
			Effect
	Variant 3
		Extras:
			Effect
			Note
		Addition 1
			Effect
		Addition 2
			Effect
	Variant 4
		Extras:
			Note
			Effect
			Example
			Note
		Addition 1
			Effect
		Addition 2
			Effect
			Exceptions
			Runtime Error: SAPSQL_SET_MISSING_VALUE
			Runtime Error: SAPSQL_SET_NOT_PLUS_MINUS
			Additional help
MODIFY


MODIFY - Changing a Database Table
	Variants:
		Effect
		Notes
	Variant 1
		Extras:
			Effect
			Example
		Addition 1
			Effect
		Addition 2
			Effect
	Variant 2
		Extras:
			Effect
			Note
		Addition 1
			Effect
		Addition 2
			Effect
	Variant 3
		Extras:
			Note
			Effect
			Example
			Note
		Addition 1
			Effect
		Addition 2
			Effect
	Variant 4
		Addition:
			Note
			Effect
		Addition
			Effect
			Additional help
DELETE


Deleting from a Databse Table
	Variants:
		Effect
		Notes
	Variant 1
		Extras:
			Effect
			Example
		Addition 1
			Effect
			Example
		Addition 2
			Effect
		Addition 3
			Effect
	Variant 2
		Extras:
			Effect
			Example
		Addition 1
			Effect
		Addition 2
			Effect
	Variant 3
		Extras:
			Effect
			Note
		Addition 1
			Effect
		Addition 2
			Effect
	Variant 4
		Addition:
			Note
			Effect
			Example
			Note
		Addition
			Effect
	Variant 5
		Note
		Effect
		Additional help
OPEN CURSOR

OPEN CURSOR
	Basic form 2
		Effect
		Example
		Notes
		Related
		Additional help
FETCH
	Basic form
		Effect
		Example
		Related
		Additional help
CLOSE CURSOR
Basic form 2
	Effect
	Additional help
Exceptions in OPEN SQL
Exceptions in Open SQL
Dynamic Source Text in Open SQL


(source_text): Source Code in Dynamic Open SQL
	Variants:
		Effect
	Variant 1
		Effect
		Example
	Variant 2
		Effect
		Example
	Variant 3
		Effect
		Example
	Variant 4
		Effect
		Example
		Note
Logical Condition in Database Access Statements


Logical Conditions in the WHERE Clause
	Variants:
		Effect
		Note
	Variant 1
		Effect
		Examples
		Example
		Notes
	Variant 2
		Effect
		Example
		Note
	Variant 3
		Addition:
			Effect
			Examples
			Notes
		Addition
			Effect
			Example
			Notes
	Variant 4
		Effect
		Example
		Note
	Variant 5
		Effect
		Example
		Note
	Variant 6
		Effect
		Example
		Notes
	Variant 7
		Effect
		Example
		Note
	Variant 8
		Effect
		Example
	Variant 9
		Effect
		Note
		Example
	Variant 10
		Effect
		Note
		Example
	Variant 11
		Effect
		Note
		Examples
	Variant 12
		Effect
		Additional help
Dynamic Logical Condition in Open SQL


Dynamic Logical Condition
	Basic form
		Effect
		Notes
		Notes
		Example
		Exceptions
		Additional help
Field Label


Field descriptor
	Variants:
		Effect
	Variant 1
		Effect
		Example
	Variant 2
		Effect
		Example
		Effect
		Example
		Additional help

Column Reference


Column Reference
	Variants:
		Effect
	Variant 1
		Addition:
			Effect
			Example
		Addition
			Effect
			Example
	Variant 2
		Addition:
			Effect
			Example
		Addition
			Effect
			Example
			Additional help
Aggregate Functions

Aggregate Functions
	Variants:
		Effect
		Note
	Variant 1
		Effect
		Example
	Variant 2
		Effect
		Example
	Variant 3
		Effect
		Example
	Variant 4
		Effect
		Example
	Variant 5
		Effect
		Example
	Variant 6
		Effect
		Example
		Exceptions
		Additional help
Strings in Database Tables
	Short Strings
	Long Strings
	Length Restriction
		Notes:
		Performance:

Secondary Database Connections


Secondary Database Connections with Open SQL
	Note
	Setting Up a Secondary Database Connection
	Standard Database Connection
	Accessing Other Database Tables
	Database Connections and Transactions
		A COMMIT CONNECTION or ROLLBACK CONNECTION on this
		A COMMIT WORK or ROLLBACK WORK
		A database commit or database rollback on this database connection in Native SQL,
		An implicit commit by a screen change, specifically the statements CALL SCREEN, CALL DIALOG, CALL TRANSACTION, MESSAGE
		A Remote Function Call (RFC), specifically the statements CALL FUNCTION ... DESTINATION, CALL FUNCTION ... STARTING NEW TASK, CALL FUNCTION ... IN BACKGROUND TASK, and WAIT.
		Note:
	Interaction with Native SQL Connections.
	Managing Database Connections
Structure of Database Tables

Line Structure of Database Tables
	Notes
	Related
Performance Tips for Open SQL Programming


General Performance hints for Open SQL Programming
	Keep the hit list small
	Transfer small amounts of data
	Use a small number of database accesses
	Search through small amounts of data
	Reduce the database load where possible
	Further Help
Indexes

Indexes
	Indexes - Form and Use
		Creating an index
		When to create an index 


It is worth creating an index when:
		Using an index consisting of several fields
		Optimal number of fields for an index
		Fields to include in an index
		Optimal number of indexes for a table
	Avoiding OR conditions
	Problems with IS NULL
Native SQL

Native SQL
	Command set
	Note
	Further Help
EXEC
	Basic form
		Addition:
			Effect
			Example
			Example
			Example
			Example
			Example
			Notes
			Notes
		Addition
			Effect
			Example
			Note
			Exceptions
			Related
			Additional help
ENDEXEC
	Basic form
		Effect
		Additional help
EXIT FROM SQL


EXIT FROM SQL
	Basic form
		Effect
		Related
		Additional help
Logical databases

Logical Databases
	Functions for displaying and changing logical databases:
	Interaction between database program and report:
	Further documentation:
	Additional help
Naming Conventions for Logical Databases

Naming Convention for Logical Databases
PUT dbtab

PUT
	Variants:
		Effect
		Note
	Variant 1
		Effect
	Variant 2
		Effect
		Example
		Related
		Additional help
	Contexts


What is a context?
	Advantages
	Context Builder
	Application help:
CONTEXTS - Declaring a Context

CONTEXTS - Declaring a Context
	Basic form
		Effect
		Note
		Example
		Related
		Additional help
SUPPLY


SUPPLY - Supplies a context with key fields
	Basic form
		Effect
		Example
		Notes
		Related
		Additional help
DEMAND

DEMAND - Request Information from a Context
	Basic form
		Extras:
			Effect
			Example
			Effect
			Example
			Notes
			Related
			Additional help
Contexts - Buffering Concept


Context Buffering
	Buffering Types
	Buffer Size
	Buffering Types
		Performance

Transaction Processing

Programming Transactions
	Transactions
	Update transactions
		Preserving database integrity
		Bundling database updates
		The ABAP/4 commands COMMIT WORK and ROLLBACK WORK
		Handling terminations
	Short response times in dialog transactions
		Distributing a transaction across several work processes
Database Integrity

Database Integrity
	Semantic integrity
	Relational integrity
	Operational integrity
Logical Unit of Work (LUW)


Logical Unit of Work (LUW)
	Database commit and rollback
Locking
Database Locking

Database Locking
	How is locking achieved?
	What is locked?
	Lock mode
	How are locks set?
	How long is a lock retained?
SAP Locking


The SAP lock mechanism is described in:
	The R/3 Lock Concept
Locking Conflicts During Database Read Access


Locking Conflicts in R/3 on DB2 for OS/390
COMMIT
	Variants:
		Effect
	Variant 1
		Addition:
			Effect
			Notes
		Addition
			Effect
	Variant 2
		Effect
		Note
		Exceptions
		Additional help
ROLLBACK WORK

ROLLBACK Syntax Diagram
ROLLBACK
	Variants:
		Effect
	Variant 1
		Effect
	Variant 2
		Effect
		Notes
		ROLLBACK is not allowed during an update (CALL FUNCTION ... IN UPDATE TASK) or during the execution of FORMs registered with PERFORM ... ON COMMIT or PERFORM ... ON ROLLBACK.
		Exceptions
		Additional help
CALL FUNCTION ... IN UPDATE TASK

CALL FUNCTION
	Variant 3
		Extras:
			Effect
		Addition 1
			Effect
		Addition 2
			Effect
			Note
			Related
SET UPDATE TASK LOCAL


SET UPDATE TASK LOCAL
	Basic form 17
		Effect
		Note
		Example
ABAP Objects
Object Orientation
Object Orientation
	Objects
	Classes
	Object References
	Encapsulation
	Polymorphism
	Inheritance
	Uses of Object Orientation
		Definition of Classes and Interfaces
Definition of Classes and Interfaces
	Defining Local Classes
	Defining local interfaces
Classes
Classes
Components of Classes,,,,
Components of Classes,,,,
Visibility Areas in Classes
	Public Section
	Protected Section
	Private Section
	Encapsulation
Attributes
	Instance Attributes
	Static Attributes
Methods
	Instance methods
	Static methods
	Constructors
	Functional methods
Attributes of interface parameters in methods
	Parameter passing by reference or by value
	Typing parameters
	Optional parameters
The C Destructor
Kernel-Methoden
	Einleitung
	Definition von Kernel-Methoden
		Deklaration in ABAP
		Implementierung in ABAP
			Beispiele
		Implementierung im Kernel
			Registrierung
			Argumente registrieren
			Zugriff auf die Argumente
		Ausnahmen auslösen
			Ausnahmen registrieren
			Ausnahmen auslösen
	Hilfsprogramm für Kernel-Methoden
	Beispiel
		Deklarationsteil der Klasse in ABAP
		Signaturfile //src/krn/runt/abkmeth.sig im Kernel
		C++-Quelltext //src/krn/.../mycalc.cpp im Kernel
		Implementierungsteil der Klasse in ABAP
Constructors
	Instance Constructors
	Static Constructors
Visibility of Instance Constructors
Events
	Instance events
	Static events
Types and Constants in Classes
	Types
	Constants
Inheritance
Redefining Methods
Abstract and Final Methods and Classes
References to Subclasses and Polymorphism
Inheritance and Interfaces
Component Visibility
	Public components
	Protected components
	Private components
	Example of protected components
Namespace of Components
Inheritance and Static Attributes
Inheritance and Constructors
	Instance Constructors
	Static Constructors
Inheritance and Instance Creation
Inheritance and Instance Creation
	Possible Cases
		Superclass with no addition or CREATE PUBLIC
		Superclass with CREATE PROTECTED addition.
		Superclass with CREATE PRIVATE addition
			Subclass no friend of the superclass
			Subclass is friend of the superclass
Interfaces
	Interface Components
	Implementing Interfaces
	Interface References
	Accessing Objects Using Interface References
	Accessing the Static Components of Interfaces
		Composing Interfaces
Composing Interfaces
	Using alias names
	Accessing interface references
	Implementing nested interfaces in classes
Friends - Friendship Between Classes
	Friends
	Friendship is One-Sided
	Inheritance, Interfaces, and Friendship
	The FRIENDS Additions
Objects
Objects
	Creating Objects
	Access to Instance Components
	Lifetime of Objects
Object References
	Reference Variables
	Data Types for References
		Class Reference
		Interface References
		Special References
	Initializing Reference Variables
	Assigning References - Narrowing Cast
	Assigning References - Widening Cast
	Object References as Actual Parameters
	Assigning Object References to Field Symbols
Accessing Class Components
	Static Access
	Dynamic Access
		Dynamically Accessing Atributes
		Dynamic Method Calls
Access to Attributes Using References in Internal Tables
Operators in ABAP Objects
The Casting Assignment
Statements in ABAP Objects
Statements for Defining Classes and Interfaces
	Defining Classes
		Defining the Declaration Part
		Defining the Implementation Part
	Defining Class Components
		Statements in the Declaration Part
		Statements in the Implementation Part
	Defining Interfaces
		Defining the Interface
	Statements for Defining Interface Components
	Note
	Statements for implementing methods
	Statements for implementing methods
Statements in Class and Interface Pools
	Statements in Class Pools
		Statement for Declaring Type Groups
		Statement for Defining Types Local in the Program
	Statements in Interface Pools
		Statement for Declaring Type Groups
	Notes
	Replacements for obsolete language constructs in ABAP Objects
	Incorrect Syntax
		Missing Separator
		Incorrect Plus-Bracket Notation
		Cannot Process a Literal over Several Lines
		Cannot Update Field Labels that Extend over More Than One Line
	Type Definitions and Data Declarations
		New Naming Conventions
		Cannot Use TABLES Statement
		Cannot Use the NODES Statement
		No common data areas
		Cannot Use LIKEReference to Dictionary Types
		Cannot Declare Type, Length, or Decimal Places Implicitly
		Incorrect Length Entry in Declaration
		No Operational Statements in Structure Definitions
		Cannot Use Anonymous Components in Structures 
You cannot declare anonymous components when you define a structured data object using the DATA, CLASS-DATA, STATICS or CONSTANTS statements in ABAP Objects.
		Cannot Use NON-LOCAL Addition
		No definition of field groups in methods
		FIELDS not allowed
		Cannot Use STATICS in Instance Methods
	Assignments
		Cannot Use CLEAR WITH NULL
		Cannot Use PACK
		Cannot Use the MOVE PERCENTAGE Statement
		Cannot Perform Arithmetic Operations on Identically-Named Structure Components
		No summing-up of memory positions
		Cannot Convert Dates
	Offset/Length Specifications
		Cannot Enter Length Less Than or Equal to Zero when Accessing Fields,,,,,,
	Processing Character Strings
		Use Only Character-Type Fields when Processing Strings
	Field Symbols
		Cannot Use Field Symbols as Class Components
		No field symbols without type assignment
		No obsolete casting withASSIGN
		No Obsolete Casting forFIELD SYMBOLS
		No local copies usingASSIGN
		No search limitations with dynamic ASSIGN
	Logical Expressions and Control Structures
		False Logical Operators
		ON CHANGE OF - ENDON not Permitted
		Incorrect statement after CASE
	Internal Tables
		Cannot Use OCCURS with Declarative Statements
		Cannot Use Headers in Tables
		Cannot Use Short Forms in Line Operations
		Cannot Change an Internal Table in a Loop
		Compatible Line Types when Using the INSERT INTO TABLE Statement
		Incompatible Work Area when Processing Control Levels
		Cannot Declare a Superfluous Work Area
		Cannot Use Obsolete Key Declaration with TABLE LINE
		Cannot Use Obsolete READ Variants
		No WRITE TO for Internal Tables
		No Field Symbols as Sort Criterium
		No field symbols as a control break criterion
		Cannot use INFOTYPES
		Cannot Use RANGES
		Cannot Use Short Form of PROVIDE
	Procedures
		Cannot Use Untyped Interface Parameters
		Pass by Reference is Standard for Methods
		Static Check for Interface Parameters
		Exceptions must be defined in the triggering class
		No Definition of Interface Parameters with TABLES
		No Obsolete Casting for Interface Parameters
		Cannot Use the LOCAL Statement
		Cannot Use PERFORM form(prog)
		Passing SY-REPID not allowed
		No transfer of SY-SUBRC
	Data Clusters
		You Must Declare Identification
		Cannot Use Generic Identification
		Cannot Use Implicit Names in Clusters
		No use of table work areas
		No clusters in files
	Program Calls
		Incorrect transaction call
		No implicit field names when calling dialog modules
	Database Accesses
	Database Accesses
		Cannot Use Short Forms
		Cannot Use an Asterisk To Indicate a Work Area
		Cannot Use READ TABLE
		Cannot UseLOOP AT
		Cannot Use REFRESH FROM
		Cannot use VERSION addition
		Wrong Logical Operators in the WHERE Clause
		Subroutine Calls Not Allowed in EXEC SQL
	Lists
		Incorrect Dynamic Position Definiion
		Cannot Use Obsolete Formatting Statements
		Cannot Perform Automatic Calculations While Using the WRITE Statement
		Cannot Use MARK
		Missing Print Parameters in the NEW-PAGE Statement
		Missing Print Parameters in SUBMIT
		Cannot use NEW-SECTION
		Cannot Use Constants in the HIDE Area
	Reporting
		Cannot Use STOP
		Cannot Use REJECT
		CHECK SELECT-OPTIONS not allowed
CLASS
	Variants:
	Variant 1a
		Extras:
			Effect
			Note
			Note
			Example
		Addition 1
			Effect
			Note
		Addition 2
			Effect
			Example
		Addition 3
			Effect
			Example
		Addition 4
			Effect
			Example
		Addition 5
			Effect
			Notes
			Example
		Addition 6
			Effect
			Note
			Example
		Addition 7
			Effect
	Variant 1b
		Effect
		Note
		Example
	Variant 1c
		Effect
		Example
	Variant 1d
		Effect
		Note
	Variant 2
		Effect
		Note
		Example
		Related
		Additional help
PUBLIC
	Basic form
		Effect
		Example
		Related
		Additional help
			PROTECTED
PROTECTED
	Basic form
		Effect
		Example
		Related
		Additional help
PRIVATE
PRIVATE
	Basic form
		Effect
		Example
		Related
		Additional help
ENDCLASS
	Basic form
		Effect
		Related
		Additional help
CLASS-DATA
	Basic form
		Effect
		Note
		Example
		Note
		Example
		Related
		Additional help
CLASS-METHODS
	Variants:
		Effect
		Note
	Variant 1
		Effect
		Example
	Variant 2
		Effect
		Example
		Related
		Additional help
CLASS-EVENTS
	Basic form
		Effect
		Note
		Example
		Related
		Additional help
METHODS
METHODS
	Variants:
		Note
	Variant 1
		Extras:
			Effect
			Notes
		Addition 1
			Effect
		Addition 2
			Effect
		Addition 3
			Effect
			Example
			Note
		Addition 4
			Effect
			Note
		Addition 5
			Effect
			Note
		Addition 6
			Effect
			Note
		Addition 7
			Effect
			Notes
		Addition 8
			Effect
		Addition 9
			Effect
			Example
	Variant 2
		Extras:
			Effect
		Addition 1
			Effect
		Addition 2
			Effect
		Addition 3
			Effect
			Note
			Example
			Related
			Additional help
EVENTS
	Basic form
		Extras:
			Effect
		Addition 1
			Effect
			Example
			Related
			Additional help
				INTERFACES
INTERFACES
	Basic form
		Extras:
			Effect
			Example
			Nesting interfaces
			Note
			Example
Additions for Implementation in Classes
	Addition 1
		Effect
	Addition 2
		Effect
	Addition 3
		Effect
	Addition 4
		Effect
	Addition 5
		Effect
		Related
		Additional help
ALIASES
	Basic form
		Effect
		Notes
		Example
		Related
			METHOD
METHOD
	Basic form
		Effect
		Example
		Related
		Additional help
			ENDMETHOD
ENDMETHOD
	Basic form
		Effect
		Related
		Additional help
			INTERFACE
INTERFACE
	Basic form
		Extras:
			Effect
			&ABAP_EXAMPLE&
		Addition 1
			Effect
			Note
			&ABAP_EXAMPLE&
			&ABAP_ADDITION_2&
			&ABAP_EFFECT&
			&ABAP_ADDITION_3&
			&ABAP_EFFECT&
			Related
			Additional help
				ENDINTERFACE
ENDINTERFACE
	Basic form
		Effect
		Related
		Additional help
CREATE - Create an Object in ABAP Objects
	Basic form 1
	Variants:
		Effect
	Variant 1
		Extras:
			Note
			Example
		Addition 1
			Effect
			Example
		Addition 2
			Effect
			Example
	Variant 2
		Extras:
		Addition 1
			Effect
		Addition 2
			Effect
			Example
	Variant 3
		Extras:
			Note
		Addition 1
		Addition 2
		Addition 3
		Addition 4
			Effect
			Example
			Note
			If executed successfully, the CREATE OBJECTstatement sets SY-SUBRC to zero. Values of SY-SUBRC other than zero can occur depending on the handling of exceptions by the instance constructor.
			Exceptions
			Related
			Additional help
CALL - Calling a Method in ABAP Objects
	Variants:
		Effect
	Variant 1a
	Variant 1b
		Extras:
			Effect
		Addition 1
			Effect
			Example
		Addition 2
			Effect
			Example
		Addition 3
			Effect
			Example
		Addition 4
			Effect
			Example
		Addition 5
			Effect
			Notes
			Example
	Variant 2
		Effect
		Example
	Variant 3
		Effect
		Example
	Variant 4
		Effect
		Example
		Note
	Variant 5a
	Variant 5b
	Variant 5c
	Variant 5d
	Variant 5e
		Extras:
			Effect
		Addition 1
			Effect
			Example
		Addition 2
			Effect
			Example
			Exceptions
			Related
			Additional help
RAISE EVENT
RAISE EVENT
	Basic form 2
		Addition:
			Effect
		Addition
			Effect
			Example
			Exceptions
			Related
			Additional help
SET HANDLER
SET HANDLER
	Basic form 19
	Variants:
		Effect
	Variant 1
		Effect
		Note
		Example
		Example
	Variant 2
		Addition:
			Effect
			Note
			Example
	Variant 3
		Addition:
			Effect
			Example
			Example
		Addition
			Effect
			Note
			Example
			Note
			Note
			Note
			Exceptions
			Related
			Additional help
TYPES - For Reference Types
TYPES - For Reference Types
	Variant 1
		Addition:
			Effect
			Note
			Example
			Additional help
			Related
DATA
DATA
	Variant 1
		Addition:
			Effect
			Note
			Example
			Additional help
			Related
DATA ... READ-ONLY
DATA
	Variant 1
		Addition:
			Effect
			Example
			Additional help
			Related
MOVE METH( ... ) TO ...
MOVE
	Variant 4
		Effect
		Example
		Related
MOVE ... ?TO ...
MOVE
	Variant 5
		Effect
		Note
		Example
		Related
COMPUTE ... ?= ...
COMPUTE
	Variant 3
		Additional help
ABAP System Classes
Classes for Determining Type Properties at Runtime 
(Run-Time Type Identification RTTI)
	Concept
	Class Hierarchy
	Example
Classes for Converting Character Sets and Number Formats
	Concept
	Classes
Class for Mathematical Operations
Class for Arithmetic and Conversion of Time Stamps
Class for Establishing the Field Properties of Individual Characters
Class for Data Clusters
Class for Getting the Transaction Status
ABAP Object Services
ABAP Object Services
	Persistence Service
Persistence Service
	Transaction Service
	Transaction Service
	Example
ABAP Unicode
ABAP Programs Under Unicode
Restrictions in Unicode Programs
Concepts and Conventions
	1. Data types
	2. Data layout of structures
	3. Unicode fragment view
	4. Permitted characters
	5. Character-type and numeric-type operands
Access Using Offset and Length Addressing
	1. Accessing single fields
	2. Accessing structures
	3. Passing parameters to subroutines
	4. Accessing field symbols using offset and length addressing
	5. Accessing field symbols using offset addressing without specifying length
Assignments
	1. Conversion between flat structures
	2. Conversion between structures and single fields
	3. Conversion between internal tables
	4. Implicit conversions
	5. Saving byte strings in character-type containers
Handling Structures like a Single Component
Handling Structures as Single Fields
Comparisons
Comparisons
Overview
	1. Comparisons between flat structures
	2. Comparisons between single fields and flat structures
	3. Comparisons between deep structures
	4. Comparisons between internal tables
Casting Data Objects
Type Checks and Type Compatibility
Type Checks and Type Compatibility
	1. Field symbols
	2. STRUCTURE
	3. LIKE
	4. INCLUDES
Structure Typing Compatibility
Kompatibilität bei Structure-Typisierung
	1. Probleme durch schließende Alignment-Lücken
	2. Lösungsmöglichkeiten bei der Übergabe von Strukturen
	3. Lösungsmöglichkeiten bei der Übergabe von internen Tabellen
Processing Strings in Unicode Systems
	1. Statements for processing strings
	2. Comparison operators for processing byte and character strings
	3. Functions for processing byte and character strings
	4. Output in fields and lists
Determine Length and Distance
Establishing Length and Distance
Specifying the Key for Tables Accesses
Storage of Cluster Tables in Database Tables
Storing Data Clusters in Database Tables
The ABAP File Interface
	1. Opening files
	2. Reading files
	3. Writing files
	4. Non-Catchable Exceptions
Database operations
Database Operations
Structure Enhancements
	1. Structure Enhancement Possibilities
	2. Problems Caused by Structure Enhancements
	3. Enhancement Classification in the Dictionary
	4. Enhancement Handling in Program Check
Other Changes
Other Changes Relating to Unicode
	1. Bit statements
	2. Adding field strings
	3. Loops with the VARY and VARYING additions
	4. Generating subroutines
	5. Saving programs
	6. Types and GET/SET PARAMETER ...
Special Statements for Unicode Programs
Special Statements for Unicode Programs
String Processing for Byte Sequences
String Processing for Byte Sequences
	1. The IN BYTE MODE addition
	2. Determining the length of the string
	3. String comparison operations
Additions for Determining Length and Distance
Assignments to Field Symbols
Assignments to Field Symbols
	1. RANGE
	2. INCREMENT
	3. CASTING
Offset/Length Accesses with Group Names
Includes with Group Names
Creating Data Objects Dynamically
	1. Data objects
	2. Table objects
Assigning Fields Dynamically
	Example
Storing Data Clusters
	1. Exporting data
	2. Importing data
Neue Zusätze für die Dateischnittstelle
	1. Opening files
	2. Reading data
	3. Writing data
	5.File attributes You can obtain the attributes of a file at runtime, using the GET DATASET or change them using SET DATASET.
ABAP Data and Communication Interfaces
ABAP Data and Communication Interfaces
Special Features When Generating Batch Input Sessions
	Step loop fields, table control fields
	Screens with variable step loops
	Fields in subscreens
	Function codes
	Radio buttons, checkboxes and pushbuttons
	Positioning the cursor
	Changes to transactions
Special Features when Processing a Batch Input Session
	Differences between online and background processing
		Authorization checking
		Transactions which behave differently in the background from online
		List processing
		Cursor position
		Warning dialog
	User-specific display formats (date, decimal points)
	"Back", "Exit" and "Cancel"
	SET/GET parameters
	Messages
	Update
	System crash
What is meant by not batch input capable?
Log Reorganization
Batch Input Authorizations
	Application help:
Cross-Transaction Application Buffer
Cross-Transaction Application Buffer
Application Help for CPIC
COMMUNICATION
	Variants:
	Variant 1
		Addition:
			Effect
			Note
		Addition
			Effect
			Example
	Variant 2
		Addition:
			Effect
			Example
	Variant 3
		Addition:
			Effect
			Note
			Example
	Variant 4
		Extras:
			Effect
		Addition 1
			Effect
		Addition 2
			Effect
			Example
	Variant 5
		Extras:
			Effect
		Addition 1
			Effect
		Addition 2
			Effect
		Addition 3
			Effect
		Addition 4
			Effect
			Note
			Example
	Variant 6
		Addition:
			Effect
			Example
			Note
			Example
			Exceptions
			Additional help
RFC - Remote Function Call
Remote Function Calls (RFC) - Introduction
	Help Documentation
CALL FUNCTION DESTINATION
	Variant 4
		Extras:
			Effect
			Note
			Note
			Notes
			Note
			Note
			Note
			Note
			Note
			Note
			Note
			Note
		Addition 2
			Effect
			Note
			Example
			Note
Exceptions for RFC
	Runtime Error: CALL_FUNCTION_TABINFO
	Cause: Only applies to asynchronous RFC: Task name is already being used 
Runtime Error: CALL_FUNCTION_TASK_IN_USE
	Cause: Only applies to asynchronous RFC: The specified task is already open 
Runtime Error: CALL_FUNCTION_TASK_YET_OPEN
CALL FUNCTION ... IN BACKGROUND TASK (transactional RFC)
CALL FUNCTION IN BACKGROUND TASK
	Variant 5
		Extras:
			Effect
			Note
			Note
		Addition 1
			Effect
		Addition 2
			Effect
			Note
		Addition 3
			Effect
		Addition 4
			Effect
			Notes
			Example
			Note
			Note
Exceptions for RFC
	Runtime Error: CALL_FUNCTION_TABINFO
	Cause: Only applies to asynchronous RFC: Task name is already being used 
Runtime Error: CALL_FUNCTION_TASK_IN_USE
	Cause: Only applies to asynchronous RFC: The specified task is already open 
Runtime Error: CALL_FUNCTION_TASK_YET_OPEN
CALL FUNCTION ... STARTING NEW TASK (asynchronous RFC)
CALL FUNCTION STARTING NEW TASK
	Variant 2
		Extras:
			Effect
			Notes
		Addition 1
			Effect
			Note
			Note
			Note
		Addition 2
		Addition 3
			Effect
			Notes
		Addition 4
			Notes
		Addition 5
			Effect
		Addition 6
			Effect
		Addition 7
			Effect
			Note
			Examples
			Note
			Note
Exceptions for RFC
	Runtime Error: CALL_FUNCTION_TABINFO
	Cause: Only applies to asynchronous RFC: Task name is already being used 
Runtime Error: CALL_FUNCTION_TASK_IN_USE
	Cause: Only applies to asynchronous RFC: The specified task is already open 
Runtime Error: CALL_FUNCTION_TASK_YET_OPEN
RECEIVE
	Basic form
		Extras:
			Effect
			Notes
		Addition 1
			Effect
			Notes
		Addition 2
			Effect
		Addition 3
			Effect
		Addition 4
			Effect
			Note
			Example
			Note
			Example
			Note
			Exceptions
Exceptions for RFC
	Runtime Error: CALL_FUNCTION_TABINFO
	Cause: Only applies to asynchronous RFC: Task name is already being used 
Runtime Error: CALL_FUNCTION_TASK_IN_USE
	Cause: Only applies to asynchronous RFC: The specified task is already open 
Runtime Error: CALL_FUNCTION_TASK_YET_OPEN
WAIT - Wait for event
	Variant 1
		
		Effect
		Note
	Variant 2
		Addition:
			Effect
			Notes
		Addition
			Notes
			Example
			Exceptions
Define Remote Destinations (RFC)
Defining Remote Destinations 
You maintain remote destinations in table RFCDES. This table cont the logical destinatinos for remote function calls (RFCs). 
You cannot maintain table RFCDES directly. 


You can maintain the logical destination in the following ways:
	Notes
RFC Logon in Target System (Remote Logon)
RFC logon to target system (remote logon)
Trusted/Trusting Systems (RFC)
Trusted and Trusting Systems
	Displaying and Maintaining Trusted Systems
	Maintaining Destinations for Trusted and Trusting Systems
	Displaying Trusted Systems
	Troubleshooting for Trusted and Trusting Systems
Remote Function Call (RFC) - Authorization Concept
	Typical RFC Problems and Their Solutions
OLE2 Automation
ABAP as OLE2 Automation Controller
	Conversion Rules
	The Automation Queue
CREATE OBJECT
CREATE
	Basic form 2
		Addition:
			Effect
			Note
		Addition 1
			Effect
		Addition 2
			Effect
			Example
			Related
SET PROPERTY
SET PROPERTY
	Basic form 14
		Addition:
			Effect
		Addition
			Example
			Related
GET PROPERTY
GET
	Basic form 6
		Addition:
			Effect
		Addition_1
		Addition 2
			Effect
			Example
			Related
CALL METHOD
CALL - Calling a Method in OLE2 Automation
	Basic form 6
		Extras:
			Effect
		Addition 1
			Effect
		Addition 2
			Effect
		Addition 3
		Addition 4
			Effect
			Example
			Related
FREE - Release memory occupied by an external object
	Basic form
		Addition:
			Effect
		Addition
			Effect
			Example
			Related
CALL cfunc
CALL - Call a System Function
	Note
	Basic form 8
		Addition:
			Effect
		Addition
			Effect
			Example
			Note
			Exceptions
CALL TRANSFORMATION
CALL TRANSFORMATION
	Basic form
		Extras:
			Effect
		Addition 1
			Effect
			Note
		Addition 2
			Effect
			Note
		Addition 3a
			Effect
		Addition 3b
			Effect
		Addition 4a
			Effect
		Addition 4b
			Effect
			Example
			Exceptions
ABAP and JavaScript
ABAP and JavaScript
	For more details, see:
The CL_JAVA_SCRIPT Class
	Example
ABAP Overviews
Alphabetical Overview of ABAP
Alphabetical Overview of ABAP
List of ABAP Language Elements
ABAP and Unicode
ABAP and Unicode
ABAP System Fields
Classification of Key Words by Type
	Language Elements Introducing Programs
	Declarative Language Elements
	Event Language Elements
	Controlling Language Elements
	Operational Language Elements
	Comments
	Include other program components
ABAP Sample Programs
Summary of Obsolete Key Words
Obsolete Variants of the READ Command
	Variants:
		Note
	Variant 1
		Effect
	Variant 2
		Effect
		Note
	Variant 3
		Effect
		Exceptions
ABAP - Tools
ABAP Programming Tools
ABAP - Workbench Tools
ABAP Workbench Tools
ABAP Programming Tools
ABAP Changes by Release
ABAP - Release-Specific Changes
	Topics:
	Changes Prior to Release 3.0 

Changes in Release 3.0 

Changes in Releases 4.0 and 4.5 

Changes in Release 4.6A 

Changes in Release 4.6C 

Changes in Release 6.10 

Changes in Release 6.20
ABAP Changes by Release
Changes Before Release 3.0
	Modification 1
	Modification 2
	Modification 3
	Modification 4
	Modification 5
	Modification 6
Changes in Release 3.0
Changes in Release 3.0
	Topics:
	14.03.96
	14.12.95
	14.12.95
	23.11.95
	05.10.95
	20.07.95
	17.05.95
	14.03.95
	28.02.95
	22.02.95
	22.02.95
	15.02.95
	26.01.95
	20.01.95
	19.01.95
	19.01.95
	18.01.95
	18.01.95
	18.01.95
	18.01.95
	18.01.95
	29.12.94
	27.12.94
	15.12.94
	15.12.94
	14.12.94
	13.12.94
	27.10.94
	24.10.94
	19.10.94
	17.10.94
	17.10.94
	15.10.94
	13.10.94
	04.10.94
	16.09.94
	08.09.94
	07.09.94
	07.09.94
	05.09.94
	02.09.94
	29.08.94
	25.08.94
	20.08.94
	19.08.94
	19.08.94
	19.08.94
	17.08.94
	01.08.94
	28.07.94
	22.07.94
	22.07.94
	20.07.94
	20.07.94
	20.07.94
	20.07.94
	18.07.94
	15.07.94
	15.07.94
	15.07.94
	15.07.94
	15.07.94
	01.07.94
	23.06.94
	15.06.94
	01.06.94
Declarative statements
Declarative Statements in Release 3.0
	Modification 1
	Modification 2
	Modification 3
	Modification 4
	Modification 5
	Modification 6
	Modification 7
RFC - Remote Function Call
RFC - Remote Function Call in Release 3.0
	Modification 1
	Modification 2
	Modification 3
Logical Databases and Selection Screens
Logical Databases and Selection Screens in Release 3.0
	Modification 1
	Modification 2
	Modification 3
	Modification 4
	Modification 5
	Modification 6
	Modification 7
	Modification 8
	Modification 9
	Modification 10
	Modification 11
	Modification 12
	Modification 13
	Modification 14
	Modification 15
	Modification 16
	Modification 17
	Modification 18
	Note
	Modification 19
	Modification 20
	Modification 21
	Modification 22
	Modification 23
	Modification 24
	Modification 25
	Modification 26
	Modification 27
	Modification 28
String Processing
Changes Relating to "String Processing" in Release 3.0
	Modification 1
	Modification 2
	Modification 3
	Modification 4
	Modification 5
	Modification 6
Internationalization


Internationalization in Release 3.0
	Overview
	Modification 1
	Modification 2
	Modification 3
List Processing


List Processing in Release 3.0
	
	
	
	
	
	
	
	
	
	
	
	
	Modification 1
	Example
	Modification 2
	Example
	Modification 3
	Modification 4
	Note
	Modification 5
	Note
	Example
	Modification 6
	Note
	Modification 7
	Modification 8
	Modification 9
	Modification 10
	Modification 11
	Modification 12
	Modification 13
	Modification 14
	Example
	Modification 15
	Example
	Modification 16
Debugger


Changes Relating to "Debugging" in Release 3.0
	
	
	
	Modification 1
	Modification 2
	Modification 3
	Modification 4
	Modification 5
Arithmetic Expressions

Arithmetic Expressions in Release 3.0
	Modification 1
	Modification 2
Assigning Types to Formal Parameters


Assigning Formal Parameters in Release 3.0
Displaying Icons on Screens

Displaying Icons on Screens
OLE2 Automation Controller
OLE2 Automation Controller in Release 3.0
R/3 as OLE Automation Server
Open SQL
Open SQL in Release 3.0
	Modification 1
	Modification 2
	Modification 3
	Modification 4
	Modification 5
	Modification 6
	Modification 7
	Modification 8
Messages


Changes to "Messages" for Release 3.0
	
	Modification 1
	Modification 2
Miscellaneous


Other Changes in Release 3.0
	
	
	
	
	
	
	Modification 1
	Modification 2
	Modification 3
	Modification 4
	Modification 5
	Modification 6
	Modification 7

Changes in Release 4.0 and 4.5


Changes in Releases 4.0 and 4.5
Bit Operations and Bit Comparisons

Bit Operations and Bit Comparisons in Release 4.0
	New variants SET BIT and GET BIT
	,,New bit operations BIT-NOT, BIT-AND, BIT-XOR and BIT-OR
		Changes in Bit Comparisons
Data Types in the ABAP Dictionary

Data types in the ABAP Dictionary
	General
	Description of functionality
		Elementary Types
		Structured types
		Table types
		Database tables
	What's next?

Processing Large Datasets

Processing Large Datasets in Release 4.0
	General Information
	Description of Function
		New Index Management in Internal Tables
		Accessing Individual Internal Table Entries With Field Symbols
		New Storage Area for Extracts
		New External Sort Process for Internal Tables and Extracts
Extended Field Symbol Concept:


Extended Concept for Field Symbols in Release 4.0:
Internal Tables - Key Tables

Internal Tables - Key Tables in Release 4.0
	New table types: STANDARD TABLE, SORTED TABLE, and HASHED TABLE
	Generic table types: INDEX TABLE and ANY TABLE
	Typing procedure parameters
	New table operations
	Integration of the new table types
Internal Tables and Extracts

Internal Tables and Extracts in Release 4.0
	Modification 1
	Modification 2
	Modification 3
Runtime Analysis

Runtime Analysis: in Release 4.0A
	Modification 1
	Modification 2
	Modification 3
	Modification 4
	Modification 5
	Modification 6
	Modification 7
	Modification 8
	Modification 9
Open SQL

Open SQL in Release 4.0
	INNER JOIN and LEFT OUTER JOIN
		Subqueries
		HAVING Clause
RFC - Remote Function Call


RFC - Remote Function Call in Release 4.0
	Modification 1
	Modification 2
	Modification 3
	Modification 4
	Modification 5
	Modification 6
	Modification 7
Enhancements for Remote Function Call in Release 4.6.
	Modification 1
	Modification 2
Selection Screens

Selection Screens in Release 4.0
	
	
	
	
	
	Modification 1
	Modification 2
	Modification 3
	Modification 4
	Modification 5
	Modification 6
	Modification 7
Logical Databases

Developments in Logical Databases in 4.0
	
	
	Modification 1
	Modification 2
	Modification 3
Time Stamp

Timestamps in Release 4.0
Further information about timestamps 


Additional Changes in Release 4.0

Further Changes in Release 4.0
	
	
	
	
	
	Modification 1
	Modification 2
	Modification 3
	Modification 4
	Modification 5
	Modification 6
	Modification 7
	Modification 8
	Modification 9
	Modification 10
Additional Changes in Release 4.5

Other changes in Release 4.5A
	
	
	
	
	Modification 1
	Modification 2
	Modification 3
	Modification 4
	Modification 5
	Modification 6
Introduction of ABAP Objects

ABAP Objects
	Overview
Runtime Analysis


Runtime Analysis in Release 4.5
	Modification 1
	Modification 2
	Modification 3
	Modification 4
	Modification 5
	Modification 6
Changes in Release 4.6A


Changes in Release 4.6A
ABAP Objects - Inheritance and Nested Interfaces


ABAP Objects - Inheritance and Compound Interfaces in Release 4.6A
	
	Modification 1
	Modification 2
ABAP Objects - Dynamic Method Call

New Features in ABAP Objects - Dynamic Invoke
ABAP Objects - Other Developments

ABAP Objects - Further Enhancements in Release 4.6A
	
	
	
	
	
	
	
	
	Modification 1
	Modification 2
	Modification 3
	Modification 4
	Modification 5
	Modification 6
	Modification 7
	Modification 8
	ABAP Objects - Obsolete Statements

New Features in ABAP Objects - Obsolete Language Constructs
New Data Types STRING and XSTRING

New Data Types STRING and XSTRING
Data Objects and Data References

Data Objects and Data References in Release 4.6A
	Modification 1
	Modification 2
	Modification 3
Data and Object Type Description at Runtime

Description of Data and Object Types at Runtime
Named Includes

Named Includes in Release 4.6A
Casting Arbitrary Data Types

Casting to Any Data Type
	Modification 1
	Modification 2
	Modification 3
	Note
Dynamic Offset and Length Access

Dynamic Offset/Length Access in Release 4.6A
	Note
Internal Tables


Internal Tables in Release 4.6A
	
	
	
	
	
	
	
	
	
	
	
	Modification 1
	Modification 2
	Modification 3
	Modification 4
	Modification 5
	Modification 6
	Modification 7
	Modification 8
	Modification 9
	Modification 10
	Modification 11
	Modification 12
	Modification 13
Runtime Analysis


Runtime Analysis in Release 4.6A
	
	
	
	
	
	
	
	
	
	Modification 1
	Modification 2
	Modification 3
	Modification 4
	Modification 5
	Modification 6
	Modification 7
	Modification 8
	Modification 9
Debugger

ABAP Debugger in Release 4.6A
	Modification 1
	Modification 2
	Modification 3
Other Developments

Enhancements in Release 4.6A
	Modification 1
	Modification 2
	Modification 3
	Modification 4
	Modification 5
	Modification 6
	Modification 7
Other Changes

Further Changes in Release 4.6A
	
	
	
	
	
	
	Modification 1
	Modification 2
	Modification 3
	Modification 4
	Modification 5
	Modification 6
Changes in Release 4.6C

Changes in Release 4.6C
ABAP Objects


What's New in ABAP Objects
	
	
	Modification 1
	Modification 2
	Modification 3
Optimizations in the Runtime System

Optimization in the Runtime System in Release 4.6C
	
	
	Modification 1
	Modification 2
	Modification 3
	Modification 4
Runtime Analysis

New Functions in Runtime Analysis
	
	Modification 1
	Modification 2
	Modification 3
	Modification 4
Other Changes

Other Developments in Release 4.6 C
	
	
	
	Modification 1
	Modification 2
	Modification 3
Changes in Release 6.10
Changes in Release 6.10
Unicode

Unicode in Release 6.10
ABAP Objects

ABAP Objects in Release 6.10
	Modification 1
	Modification 2
	Modification 3
	Modification 4
	Modification 5
	Modification 6
	Modification 7
	Modification 8
	Modification 9
	Modification 10
Object Services


Object Services in Release 6.10
Internal Tables


Internal Tables in Release 6.10
	
	Modification 1
	Modification 2
	Modification 3
	Modification 4
	Modification 5
	Modification 6
	Modification 7
	Modification 8
	Modification 9
	Modification 10
	Modification 11
	Modification 12
Character Strings


Character Strings in Release 6.10
	Modification 1
	Modification 2
	Modification 3
	Modification 4
	Modification 5
	Modification 6
File interface
File Interface in Release 6.10
	Modification 1
	Modification 2
	Modification 3
	Modification 4
	Modification 5
Compiler

Compiler in Release 6.10
	Modification 1
	Modification 2
	Modification 3
	Modification 4
	Modification 5
	Modification 6
	Modification 7
	Modification 8
	Modification 9
Runtime and Load Size

Runtime and Loadsize in Release 6.10
	Modification 1
	Modification 2
	Modification 3
	Modification 4
	Modification 5
	Modification 6
	Modification 7
	Modification 8
Type Concept

Type Concept in Release 6.10
	Modification 1
	Example
	Modification 2
	Modification 3
	Modification 4
SQL and Updates


SQL and Update in Release 6.10
	Modification 1
	Modification 2
	Modification 3
	Modification 4
	Modification 5
	Modification 6
	Modification 7
	Modification 8
	Modification 9
	Modification 10
	Modification 11
	Modification 12
With Open SQL you can now store character strings and binary data in database columns as strings.
Exception Handling

Exception Handling in Release 6.10
Data References

Data References in Release 6.10
	Modification 1
	Modification 2
	Modification 3
	Modification 4
	Example
	Modification 5
	Modification 6
	Modification 7
	Modification 8
Using JavaScript with ABAP


Integrating JavaScript in Release 6.10
Debugger

Debugger in Release 6.10
	Modification 1
	Modification 2
	Modification 3
	Modification 4
	Modification 5
	Modification 6
	Modification 7
	Modification 8
	Modification 9
	Modification 10
	Modification 11
Coverage Analyzer

Coverage Analyzer in Release 6.10
List Processing


List Processing in Release 6.10
	Modification 1
	Modification 2
	Modification 3
System Fields


System fields in Release 6.10
	Modification 1
	Modification 2
Other Changes
Other Changes in Release 6.10
	Modification 1
	Modification 2
	Modification 3
	Modification 4
	Modification 5
	Modification 6
	Modification 7
	Modification 8
	Modification 9
	Modification 10
	Modification 11
	Modification 12
	Modification 13
	Modification 14
	Modification 15
	Modification 16
	Modification 17
	Modification 18
Changes in Release 6.20

Changes in Release 6.20
The main developments in Release 6.20 are in the following areas: 

ABAP Objects 

Structure Enhancements 

Exceptions that Can Be Handled 

Additions 

Short Dumps 

Tools 

Further Changes 



ABAP Objects
ABAP Objects in Release 6.20
	Modification 1
	Modification 2
	Modification 3
	Modification 4
	Modification 5
	Modification 6
	Modification 7
Structure Enhancements
Structure Enhancements in Release 6.20
Exceptions that Can Be Handled

New Exceptions that Can Be Handled in Release 6.20
	
	
	
	
	
	
	
	
	Modification 1
	Modification 2
	Modification 3
	Modification 4
	Modification 5
	Modification 6
	Modification 7
	Modification 8
	Modification 9
Extras

Additions in Release 6.20
	Modification 1
	Modification 2
	Modification 3
	Modification 4
	Modification 5
Short Dumps

Short Dumps in Release 6.20
	Modification 1
	Modification 2
	Modification 3
Tools
Tools in Release 6.20
	Modification 1
	Modification 2
	Modification 3
	The display of the memory consumption of dynamic objects has been divided into an overview of the total memory consumption and ranked lists for individual objects. You can compile the ranked lists according to specific criteria by choosing the function Change Settings. You now display the memory consumption by choosing Goto-> Status Displays -> Memory Consumption.
	Breakpoints are then differentiated by whether they are effective in an HTTP or standard session. HTTP debugging is activated in the Editor by choosing Utilities → Settings → HTTPDebugging. Depending on the setting, the system then displays either the HTTP or standard breakpoints in the Editor.
	If, under Settings, you selected the function Check Sorting Before READ BINARY SEARCH, the system checks, before every execution of this statement, whether the internal table is sorted. If the table is not sorted, a Runtime Error occurs. You should only activate this setting shortly before reaching a relevant point in the source code, because there can be a significant loss in performance, depending on the table size.
	If you checked the "Check Sorting Before PROVIDE" function under settings, the system checks all of the relevant tables - and not just the area specified with extlim1 und extlim2 - for sorting and overlapping intervals when the long form of the PROVIDE statement is executed.
	When displaying exception objects, the system only displayed the key itself in the field display for the TEXTID attribute that contains the OTR key of the text description assigned to the exception. Because this key is generated automatically and is nothing more than a sequence of numbers, assigning the corresponding text to the exception was difficult. The reason for this is that the displayed value had to be compared with the values of all constants generated for the exception. To simplify the assignment, the name of the constant generated for the key is now displayed as a Quickinfo. For example, in the case of an exception of the type CX_SY_FILE_IO for the TEXTID attribute the system displays READ_ERROR or WRITE_ERROR as a Quickinfo, depending on whether the exception was raised while reading or writing. The actual value of the attribute is the OTR key of the corresponding text description.
	By choosing Debugging -> Session, you can now persistently save breakpoints and the settings System Debugging and Always Create Exception Object and reload them later. You can save the session, entering a name and expiry date for it. It is then available to other users and sessions, with the selected settings.
Other Changes


Further Changes in Release 6.20
	Modification 1
	Modification 2
	Modification 3
	Modification 4
	Modification 5
	Modification 6
	Modification 7
                        

Similer Documents