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Table of Contents
                            HVAC: Handbook of Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning
	FRONT MATTER
		TABLE OF CONTENTS
		PREFACE
		ABOUT THE AUTHORS
	TABLE OF CONTENTS
	1. FUNDAMENTALS
	(SAMPLE) 2. PSYCHROMETRY
		Psychrometrics
			Table 2-1. Composition of Dry Air
		Ideal Gas Approximation
		Equation of State
		Humidity Ratio
		Relative Humidity
		Degree of Saturation
		Wet Bulb Temperature
		Partial Pressure of Water Vapor
		Dew Point Temperature
		Saturation
		Enthalpy
		Wet Bulb Temperature
		Properties of Moist Air
		Psychrometric Chart Presentation
			Construction of the Psychrometric Chart
			Thermodynamic Properties of Water at Saturation
			Thermodynamic Properties of Moist Air
	(SAMPLE) 3. AIR CONDITIONING PROCESSES
		Introduction
		Heating and Cooling Process
		Cooling with Dehumidification
		Heating with Humidification
		Adiabatic Mixing of Two Air Streams
		Evaporative Cooling
		Heating and Air Conditioning System Cycles
	4. INDOOR AIR QUALITY AND VENTILATION
	5. LOAD ESTIMATING FUNDAMENTALS
	6. HEATING LOAD CALCULATIONS
	7. COOLING LOAD CALCULATIONS
	8. DUCT DESIGN
	9. PIPE SIZING
	(SAMPLE) 10. HYDRONIC HEATING AND COOLING SYSTEM
		Basic System
			Temperature Classifications
				Low Temperature Water (LWT) System
				Medium Temperature Water (MTW) System
				Chilled Water (CW) System
				Dual Temperature Water (DTW) System
		Closed Hydronic System Components Design
			Convectors or Terminal Units
			Boiler
			Air Eliminations Methods
			Pressure Increase Due to Change in Temperature
			Expansion Tank
				Open tanks with air/water interface
				For diaphragm tanks
				For closed tanks with air/water interface
			Expansion Tank Sizing
				Expansion Tank Location
		Characteristics of Centrifugal Pumps
			Operating Characteristics
			Pump Laws
			Change of Performance
				Table 10-1. Performance of a Certain Pump at 1150 rpm
				Table 10-2. Performance of Pump in Table 10-1 when Speed is 1750 rpm
			Centrifugal Pump Selection
			Total Dynamic Head
				Table 10-3. Friction Heads for Illustrative Problem
			Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH)
		Pumping System
			Parallel Pumping
			Series Pumping
		Design Procedures
			Preliminary Equipment Layout
				Flows in Mains and Laterals
				Preliminary Pipe Sizing
				Preliminary Pressure Drop
				Preliminary Pump Selection
			Final Pipe Sizing and Pressure Drop Determination
				Final Piping Layout
			Final Pressure Drop
			Final Pump Selection
			Freeze Prevention
	11. ENERGY CALCULATION
	12. COMBUSTION
	13. AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS
	14. AIR HANDLING AND VENTILATION
	15. STEAM HEATING SYSTEM DESIGN
	16. NOISE AND VIBRATION CONTROL
	17. MOTORS AND STARTERS
	18. ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS & DESIGN PROCEDURE
	19. CLIMATIC DESIGN INFORMATION
	20. UNITS AND CONVERSIONS
	21. INDEX
		A
		B
		C
		D
		E
		F
		G
		H
		I
		K
		L
		M
		N
		O
		P
		Q
		R
		S
		T
		U
		V
		W
		Y
		Z
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 1

THIS HANDBOOK PROVIDES COMPREHENSIVE
TECHNICAL INFORMATION TO HEATING,
VENTILATING, AND AIR CONDITIONING

ENGINEERS, DESIGNERS AND PRACTITIONERS

HVAC:
Handbook of Heating,

Ventilation and
Air Conditioning for

Design and Implementation

BY

ALI VEDAVARZ, PH.D., PE
Deputy Director of Engineering, New York City Capital Projects,

New York City Housing Authority and
Industry Professor, Polytechnic University, Brooklyn, NY

SUNIL KUMAR, PH.D.
Professor of Mechanical Engineering and Dean of Graduate School

Polytechnic University, Brooklyn, NY

MUHAMMED IQBAL HUSSAIN, PE
Mechanical Engineer, Department of Citywide Administrative Services

New York City, NY

2007

INDUSTRIAL PRESS INC.

NEW YORK

HVAC: Handbook of Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning

Copyright 2007, Industrial Press Inc., New York, NY - www.industrialpress.com

Page 2

COPYRIGHT © 2007 by Industrial Press Inc., New York, NY.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Vedavarz, Ali.

HVAC: handbook of heating ventilation and air conditioning / Ali Vedavarz, Sunil Kumar, Muhammed
Hussain.

p. cm.

ISBN 0-8311-3163-2

ISBN13 978-0-8311-3163-0

I. Heating--Handbooks, manuals, etc. 2. Ventilation--Handbooks, manuals, etc. 3. Air conditioning--
Handbooks, manuals, etc. 4. Buildings--Environmental engineering--Handbooks, manuals, etc. I. Kumar, Sunil.
II. Hussain, Muhammed Iqbal. III. Title.

Printed and bound in the United States of America

All rights reserved. This book or parts thereof may not be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system,
or transmitted in any form without permission of the publishers.

TH7011.V46 2006
697--dc22

2006041837

Cover Photo: Image published with kind permission of CVRD and Bluhm Engineering.

INDUSTRIAL PRESS, INC.

989 Avenue of the Americas

New York, New York 10018 -5410

1st Edition

First Printing

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

HVAC: Handbook of Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning

Copyright 2007, Industrial Press Inc., New York, NY - www.industrialpress.com

Page 27

AIR CONDITIONING PROCESSES3–6

Fig 3-15. Psychrometric diagram of heating/humidifying process

Fig 3-16. Air conditioning cooling system

The following examples will provide good practice and
an approach to the analysis of HVAC cycles.

Example 5:Determine the sensible and latent heat load,
if 5000 cfm conditioned air is supplied to a room at 55°F
and 90% relative humidity. The space is to be maintained
at 75°F at sensible heat factor (SHF) 0.80?

Solution: The total cooling load for the room is

Applying the sensible heat factor equation

where =total heat loss, Btu/hr

=sensible heat loss, Btu/hr

=latent heat loss, Btu/hr

Then latent heat is

Example 6:A room is to be maintained at 75°F and 50%
relative humidity. The outside air condition is 95°F and
60% relative humidity. The outdoor air requirements for
the occupants is 500 cfm. The total heat gain to the space
is 60,000 Btu/hr with a 0.80 SHF. Determine the quantity
and the state of the air supplied to the space and the
required capacity of cooling and dehumidifying equip-
ment.

Solution: Assume that the conditions of air after the
cooling coil is 55°F and 90% relative humidity. Now
make a schematic diagram to locate the points on the psy-
chrometric chart.

Applying the energy balance equation around the room

o

m

r s

m
ix

in
g

room

heating

Dry-bulb temperature

H
um

id
it

y
R

at
io

o

m

r
s

Dry-Bulb Temperature

H
um

id
it

y
R

at
io

q· t 1.10 cfm T∆××=

1.10 5000 75 55–( )××=
110000 Btu/hr=

SHF
q· s

q· s q
·
l+

----------------=

SHF
q· s
q· t
-----=

q· s q
·
t SHF×=

110000 0.80×=
88000 Btu/hr=

q· t

q· s

q· l

q· s q
·
l+ q

·
t=

q· l q
·
t q

·
s–=

110000 88000–=

22000 Btu/hr=

T0 95= Φ0 60=

T2 55= Φ2 90=

T3 75= Φ3 50=

h0 46.4= W0 0.021= v0 14.45=

h2 22.2= W2 0.008= v2 13.13=

h3 28.1= W3 0.009= v3 13.66=

m· 2h2 q
·+ m· 2h3=

m· 2


h3 h2–( )
----------------------=

60000
28.1 22.2–( )

-------------------------------=

10170 lb/hr=

HVAC: Handbook of Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning

Copyright 2007, Industrial Press Inc., New York, NY - www.industrialpress.com

Page 28

AIR CONDITIONING PROCESSES 3–7

The flow rate of dry air is

The flow rate of outside air is

The return air quantity will be (10170−2076) or 8094
lbm/hr. Assume return air condition and room air condi-
tion are same.

Now we find the mixed air condition by the mixing of
return air and outside air.

Applying the energy balance equation around the cool-
ing coil:

Example 7:A room is to be maintained at 75°F and 50%
relative humidity. The outside air is 30°F and 50% rela-
tive humidity. The outdoor air requirements for the occu-
pants is 500 cfm. Sensible and latent heat losses from the
spaces are 120,000 Btu/hr and 30,000 Btu/hr. Determine
the quantity of air supplied at 120°F to the space and the
required capacity of heating and humidifying equipment.

Solution: The figure below is the schematic for the prob-
lem.

Draw a line at point 3 parallel to SHF= 0.80, which
intersect 120°F at point 2.

Applying the energy balance equation around the room

The flow rate of dry air is

0

1
32

cfmra m
·

2ν3
10170 13.66×

60
---------------------------------- 2315 cfm= = =

m· 4
cfmoa

ν
-------------- 500 60×

14.45
--------------------- 2076 lbm hr⁄= = =

m· 1 m
·

0 m
·

4+ 8094 2076+ 10170 lb= = =

h1
h0 m

·
0× h4 m

·
4×+

m· 1
--------------------------------------------=

46.4 2076 28.1 8094×+×
10170

----------------------------------------------------------------=

31.84 Btu/lb=

W1
W0 m

·
0× W4 m

·
4×+

m· 1
------------------------------------------------=

0.021 2076 0.009 8094×+×
10170

----------------------------------------------------------------------=

0.0115=

m· 1h1 q
·
c m

·
2h2+=

q· c m
·

2 h1 h2–( )=

10170 31.84 22.2–( )=
98038 Btu/hr=

8.17 ton=

SHF
q· s

q· s q
·
l+

----------------=

120000
120000 30000+
---------------------------------------=

0.80=

0

1

3

2

x

m· 2h2 m
·

2h3 q
·
t+=

m· 2
q· t

h3 h2–( )
----------------------=

150000
46.2 28.2–( )

-------------------------------=

8333 lb/hr=

cfmra m
·

2ν3
8333 13.66×

60
------------------------------- 1898 cfm= = =

HVAC: Handbook of Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning

Copyright 2007, Industrial Press Inc., New York, NY - www.industrialpress.com

Page 53

INDEX21–12

Sulfur content 12-15
Summer cycle 13-88
Summer operation 13-95
Superheated vapor 1-1
Supplementary heat 13-47
Supply and return header drip 15-6
Surface conductance 5-18
Surface resistance 5-18
Surface temperature calculations 5-9
Surroundings 1-2
Surveyors measure 20-1, 20-8
Symbols

abbreviations 18-8
air conditioning piping 18-6
fittings 18-7
heating piping 18-6
piping 18-6
plumbing piping 18-7
pneumatic tubes 18-7
sprinklers 18-7
valves, pipe fitting 18-5

System boundary 1-2
System design 13-47

T
Tank transition from winter to summer 13-58
Tanks and pans 13-113
Tebi 20-10
Temperature control 12-28
Temperature limit, heat recovery 13-45
Thermal

conduction 1-11
conduction problems 1-15
conductivity 1-11, 5-1–5-2
convection 1-12
diffusivity 1-12
energy 20-7
radiation 1-14, 5-4
resistance of air space 5-19

Thermodynamic
cycles 1-4, 1-6
fundamental 1-1
system 1-2

Thermostat location 13-10
Thermostatic controls 15-94
Thermostatic trap 15-28
Thermostats 13-43
Through wall installations 13-5
Tip speed 14-2
Ton long and short 20-2
Ton, metric 20-8
Tramp air 12-16
Transmission of coefficients

doors 5-28
fenestrations 5-27
wood 5-28

Trap
air handling unit 15-112–15-116
boiler return 15-29
cleaning 13-112
condensate capacities 15-26
connection 15-8
flash 15-29
float 15-27
float sizing 15-41
impulse 15-29
inverted bucket 15-29
lifting 15-29
pressure differential 15-26
radiation load 15-26
safety factor 15-26
selection 15-26
splitting 15-7
thermostatic 15-8
types 15-27
upright bucket 15-28
warm up load 15-26

Troubleshooting 12-15, 12-17
Troy weight for gold and silver 20-2
Types of heat pumps 13-37

U
Unheated temperature calculations 5-9
Unit

conversions 20-8
systems 20-8

Unit air conditioners 13-114
air filters 13-114
condensers 13-114
cooling coil 13-114
fans 13-114
motors 13-114
piping 13-114

Unit heater
air stream direction 15-120
circulation of air 15-120
duct furnace 15-118
enclosed furnace 15-118
exposed wall 15-120
floor mounted heavy duty type 15-117
floor mounted vertical blower units 15-117
full area heating 15-111
gas fired 15-109, 15-118–15-119
gas fired air heater 15-117
industrial type 15-5
installations 15-119
obstructions 15-120
occupants 15-120
partial area heating 15-111
performance factors 15-109
piping 15-5
propeller fan type 15-117
sizing 15-118
spot heating 15-111
steam supplied 15-110
suspended 15-109
suspended blower type 15-117
suspended heavy duty units 15-117
temperature limits 15-109
thermostat locations 15-120
too buoyant air 15-109
types 15-117

Unit systems 20-8
Unit ventilator 13-88, 15-5

auditorium type 15-5
piping 15-5

Upright bucket trap 15-28

V
Vacuum lift 15-12
Vacuum pump 15-30
Valve and fitting equivalents 9-7–9-27
Valve and fitting loss 9-1–9-58
Valves 13-113

check 9-139–9-141
gate 9-139–9-141
globe 9-139–9-141

Variable speed control 13-95
Variable volume system 13-17–13-21

cooling considerations 13-20
energy requirements 13-19
heating and cooling calculations 13-19
initial costs 13-18
overlapping 13-21

Velocity design criteria 9-3
Velocity pressure relation 8-3, 14-38
Ventilation 14-1
Ventilation heat loss 6-6
Vibration 13-106
Vibration in pipes 1-11
Vibration isolation 16-7
Viscosity 1-6
Viscosity of liquid 9-78

W
Wall furnace 15-83
Wall type

mass inside insulation 7-28–7-30

HVAC: Handbook of Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning

Copyright 2007, Industrial Press Inc., New York, NY - www.industrialpress.com

Page 54

INDEX 21–13

Warm air heating 15-82
air volume 15-97–15-99
blower characteristics 15-87
bonnet capacity 15-85
bonnet efficiency 15-85
bonnet pressures 15-100
combustion air supply 15-93
combustion and ventilation air 15-93
combustion efficiency 15-85
direct fired unit heater 15-83
duct arrangement 15-91
duct heat loss 15-85
duct system 15-88
duct transmission efficiency 15-85
floor furnace 15-83
flue gas loss 15-85
forced air furnace 15-83
furnace arrangement 15-91
gravity furnace 15-82
gravity hot air furnace 15-82
heat input 15-85
industrial warm furnace 15-83
pipeless furnace 15-82
rating of furnace 15-85
register delivery 15-85
register free areas 15-100
register pressures 15-101
register temperature 15-97–15-99
registers 15-89
return air intake 15-90
selection of furnace 15-87
selection procedure 15-87
space heater 15-83
stove 15-82
testing of furnace 15-85
thermostatic controls 15-94
throw from registers 15-100
trends 15-88
unit heater 15-83
wall furnace 15-83

Waste steam heat utilization 15-50
Water conditioning 15-16
Water flow velocity 15-49
Water gauge 14-1

Water hammer 15-11
Water in fuel oil 12-18
Water piping 9-3, 9-28
Water properties 2-12
Water to air heat pumps 13-40
Water to water heat pumps 13-39
Water velocities maximum 9-3
Water velocity 15-52
Weight

avoirdupois or commercial 20-2
measures 20-1, 20-3
metric 20-8
sheetmetal 14-75–14-76
troy, for gold and silver 20-2

Well water
AC systems 13-54
precooling 13-55
refrigerant condensing 13-55

Wet atomizing steam 12-18
Wet bulb temperature 2-2, 2-5
Wide open BHP 14-2
Window GLF 7-47–7-48
Winter cycle 13-88
Winter operation 13-96
Winterizing chilled water system 13-97
Wire, circular mil measurement 20-1
Work 1-2

mechanical 1-2
shaft 1-2

Y
Year round remote units 13-3

Z
Zone day night operation 13-91
Zone mixing dampers 13-88
Zone types

CLF tables 7-31–7-34
SCL tables 7-31–7-34

Zoning installations 13-8

HVAC: Handbook of Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning

Copyright 2007, Industrial Press Inc., New York, NY - www.industrialpress.com

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