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TitleInstrumentation and Control Course
File Size28.0 MB
Total Pages724
Table of Contents
                            Module 1- Instrumentation Drawings & Symbols
Module 2 Measurements
	1 Pressure Measurements
	2 Flow Measurements
	3 Level Mesurements
	4 Temperature Measurement
Module 3 Control Valves
	1 Controllers and Control Theory
	2 Final Control Elements
Module 4 - Advanced Control Methods
Module 5 Distributed Control Systems DCS
	1 Distributed Control Systems DCS
	2 Communication Facilities
	3 DCS Configuration Guidelines
	4 Selection of the Best DCS
Module 6 Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition System SCADA
	1 Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition System SCADA
	2 Advanced Operator Interfaces
Module 7 PLC - Programmiable Logic Cotrollers PLCS
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 1

Module 1- Instrumentation Drawings & Symbols -1-

SSYYRRIIAANN GGAASS CCOOMMPPAANNYY ((SSGGCC))


Specific Programs "Instrumentation & Control"




















MMOODDUULLEE 11::

IINNSSTTRRUUMMEENNTTAATTIIOONN

DDRRAAWWIINNGGSS && SSYYMMBBOOLLSS

Page 2

Module 1- Instrumentation Drawings & Symbols -2-

SSYYRRIIAANN GGAASS CCOOMMPPAANNYY ((SSGGCC))


Specific Programs "Instrumentation & Control"



IINNSSTTRRUUMMEENNTTAATTIIOONN DDRRAAWWIINNGGSS

&& SSYYMMBBOOLLSS

Objectives

At completion of this module, the trainee will have understanding of:

1. Instrumentation symbols and abbreviations,

2. Structure of instrument codes (Tag Numbers),

3. Process Block Diagram

4. Process Flow Diagram (PFD)

5. Piping and Instrumentation Drawing (P&ID)

6. Electrical Loop Drawing

7. DCS (I/O) Input & Output Loop Drawing

8. Pneumatic Loop drawing

9. Cause and Effect Diagram

10. Functional Logic Diagram

11. Instrument Installation Hook-Up Diagram (Pneumatic or Process)


Introduction

This manual has been written to provide the reader with an understanding of the
various codes and symbols used to illustrate instrumentation in facilities designed
for the production of oil, gas and associated hydrocarbon products.


Instrument codes and symbols are graphically represented in technical diagrams
such as Process Flow Schemes (PFD) and in Pipeline and Instrumentation Drawings
(P&ID).


Such drawings are of particular importance to operation and maintenance
technicians who are required to understand the process control systems associated
with an installation.


However, difficulties are often experienced primarily due to the existence of several
systems of instrument codes and symbols which have been developed over the years
by owners and contractors who carry out the engineering design, construction and
operation of processing installations.

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Module 3 B- FFiinnaall CCoonnttrrooll EElleemmeennttss -46-

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Smart Positioners:



Figure 8. Smart Positioner Schematic.

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Use of the Valve Positioners in Split-Range Control Loops


Typical loop as an example:



As illustrated in figure 9, the purpose of using this split-rage loop is to provide the two

consumers with fuel gas if gas supply pressure is high enough. With supply pressure

decreasing, the control loop reduces the opening of the low priority consumer control valve

to save the gas for the high priority consumer.



The positioner of PV-A is calibrated to operate its control valve from 0 to 100% travel at the

lower half of the input signal range (4 – 12 mA), while the positioner of PV-B is calibrated

to operate its control valve from 0 to 100% travel at the upper-half of the input signal range

(12 – 20 mA)




Figure 9. Sample Split Range Loop

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Module 7- PLC -46-

SSYYRRIIAANN GGAASS CCOOMMPPAANNYY ((SSGGCC))


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19.11 STATIC ELECTRICITY PRECAUTIONS

Some of the risks from static electricity and suggested precautions are listed as

follows:



a. Static electricity is readily generated by personnel clothing, especially man-

made fibres. The human body can accumulate a static charge in excess of 10,000

volts, although when discharged, it is short-lived and of low temperature.



b. Hydrocarbons may become charged with static electricity from pumping,

filtering, splash filling, or by settling out of water through them. High velocity

flow rates increase static generation and reduce the opportunity for charge

relaxation which may result in sparking. A low flow rate assists by reducing

charge separation in the fluid (and hence charge accumulation) and may allow

charge to migrate to earth, hence reducing the risk of sparking.



c. When pouring flammable low-conducting fluids from a container to a receptacle,

e.g. taking crude oil samples, the container, receptacle and funnel, if used, must

be bonded together and to earth. All equipment should be of metal. Recipient

vessels and loading nozzles or hoses should be bonded to earth during transfer

operations.



d. Where practicable, inert gas blankets should be maintained over the liquid in

storage when filtering operations take place.



e. Other items in common usage which, may cause static electricity build up if not

properly earthed are grit blasting and even fine water sprays used for fire

fighting. Safeguards should include bonding of nozzles and the use of anti-static

hoses.

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Module 7- PLC -47-

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f. Electronic equipment can be very sensitive to electrostatic discharge.

Suitable precautions such as the use of earthed wrist straps should be Used when

handling electrostatic sensitive electronic equipment (including packing and

unpacking). Wristband cords shall be checked prior to use.

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