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TitleMCATs_2
TagsChemical Kinetics Redox Acid Reaction Rate Chemical Equilibrium
File Size2.2 MB
Total Pages94
Table of Contents
                            Solutions: Terms
Solutions: Terms
Colligative Properties: Important!
Vapor Pressure
Vapor Pressure
Vapor Pressure
Vapor Pressure Depression
Vapor Pressure Depression
Boiling Point Elevation
Boiling Point Elevation
Freezing Point Depression
Freezing Point Depression
Kinetics: Some Terms
Kinetics: Some Terms
Kinetics: Reaction Rate
Activation Energy, Ea
Activation Energy, Ea
Catalysts
Rate Laws
Rate Laws
Rate Laws
Rate Laws
Rate Laws
The Equilibrium Constant
The Equilibrium Constant
The Reaction Quotient
Le Châtelier’s Principle
Le Châtelier’s Principle
Solubility Product
Solubility Product: Example
Ion Product and Common Ion Effect
Ion Product and Common Ion Effect
Acids and Bases: Definitions
Conjugate Acids and Bases
Strengths of Acids and Bases
Strengths of Acids and Bases
Strengths of Conjugate Pairs
Strengths of Conjugate Pairs: Example
Strengths of Conjugate Pairs: Example
Amphoteric Substances
Ion-Product Constant of Water
pH Calculations: A Shortcut
pH Calculations
pKa and pKb
Neutralization Reactions
Neutralization Reactions
Indicators
Indicators
Picking an Indicator
Hydrolysis of Salts
Hydrolysis of Salts
What is a buffer?
Buffer Compensation
Buffer Compensation
Buffer Compensation
Dealing with Buffers
Dealing with Buffers – Example
Acid-Base Titrations – Terms
Acid-Base Titrations – Terms
Titration Curves – The Basics
Titration Curves – The Basics
Titration Curves – The Basics
Titration Curves – The Basics
Titration Curves – Examples
Titration Curves – Examples
System and Surroundings
System and Surroundings: Energy Flow
First Law of Thermodynamics
First Law of Thermodynamics
First Law of Thermodynamics
First Law of Thermodynamics
Second Law of Thermodynamics
Entropy: Disorder or Randomness
Enthalpy: Heat Energy
Enthalpy and Heat of Formation
More Enthalpy
Hess’s Law Example
Gibbs Free Energy
DG and Temperature
Reaction Energy Diagrams Revisited
Thermodynamics and Equilibrium
Oxidation-Reduction Reactions
Galvanic (Voltaic) Cells
Galvanic (Voltaic) Cells
Redox Electrode Potentials
Nernst Equation
Electrolytic Cells
Faraday’s Law of Electrolysis
Faraday’s Law of Electrolysis
Concentration Cells
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 1

11

Solutions: TermsSolutions: Terms

Solute, solvent, dissolution, precipitation, Solute, solvent, dissolution, precipitation,
solubility, solubility, molaritymolarity, , molalitymolality, mole fraction., mole fraction.
SoluteSolute: substance in smaller proportion.: substance in smaller proportion.
SolventSolvent: substance in greater proportion.: substance in greater proportion.
DissolutionDissolution: process of dissolving.: process of dissolving.
PrecipitationPrecipitation: reverse of dissolution.: reverse of dissolution.
SolubilitySolubility: amount solute to saturate solvent.: amount solute to saturate solvent.

Page 2

22

Solutions: TermsSolutions: Terms
MolarityMolarity: moles of solute per : moles of solute per literliter of solution.of solution.
MolalityMolality: moles of solute per : moles of solute per kgkg of solvent.of solvent.
Mole fractionMole fraction: fraction of moles of given : fraction of moles of given
substance relative to total moles in solution.substance relative to total moles in solution.
•• XXaa = = nnaa//ΣΣnn

What is an What is an electrolyteelectrolyte??
Free ions in a solution Free ions in a solution conducts electricity.conducts electricity.
What is the What is the van’tvan’t Hoff factor, Hoff factor, ii??
Number of ions existing after dissolution of Number of ions existing after dissolution of
one unit of substance: one unit of substance: NaClNaCl, CaCl, CaCl22

Page 47

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IndicatorsIndicators
An indicator marks the endpoint of a titration, An indicator marks the endpoint of a titration,
but why does it change color?but why does it change color?
Indicator is actually weak acid whose Indicator is actually weak acid whose
protonatedprotonated form is one color and form is one color and deprotonateddeprotonated
is another.is another.
How does this help us?How does this help us?
Don’t forget that the indicator is a weak acid!Don’t forget that the indicator is a weak acid!

Page 48

4848

IndicatorsIndicators
HInHIn HH++ + + InIn––

KKaa = [H= [H++][In][In––]/[]/[HInHIn]]……now rearrange:now rearrange:
[H[H++]/]/KKaa = [= [HInHIn]/[In]/[In––]]……and look at ratios:and look at ratios:
•• If [HIf [H++] » ] » KKaa, [, [HInHIn] » [In] » [In––]…see ]…see color 1color 1
•• If [HIf [H++] = ] = KKaa, [, [HInHIn] = [In] = [In––]…mix of two ]…mix of two ccoolloorrss
•• If [HIf [H++] « ] « KKaa, [, [HInHIn] « [In] « [In––]…see ]…see color 2color 2

So indicator turns colors over short pH range So indicator turns colors over short pH range
near its near its ppKKaa..

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Concentration CellsConcentration Cells
A galvanic cell that has identical electrodes but A galvanic cell that has identical electrodes but
whose halfwhose half--cells have different ion cells have different ion
concentrations.concentrations.
Electric current from potential difference arising Electric current from potential difference arising
from unequal concentrations.from unequal concentrations.
Electrons will flow in direction of highest Electrons will flow in direction of highest
concentration of positive ions.concentration of positive ions.
When concentrations of solutions become equal, When concentrations of solutions become equal,
the reaction will stop.the reaction will stop.

Page 94

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Concentration CellsConcentration Cells

EE = = EE°° ––
0.0592 V0.0592 V

22
loglog

[Ni[Ni2+2+]]dilutedilute
[Ni[Ni2+2+]]concentratedconcentrated

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