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TitleNeuro Notes
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Table of Contents
                            Copyright
Preface
Intro
	Directory of Diagnoses and Tests and Measures
Physical Therapy Examination for Patients with Neuromuscular Disorders
	Physical Therapy Examination
	Tests and Measures
Pediatric Disorders
	Cerebral Palsy (CP)
	Developmental Coordination Disorder
	Epilepsy
	Hydrocephalus
	Muscular Dystrophy (MD)
	Neonatal Neurological Conditions
	Obstetrical Brachial Plexus Palsy
	Rett Syndrome
	Shaken Baby Syndrome
	Spina Bifida (SB)
Nonprogressive Disorders of the Central Nervous System
	Central Vestibular Dysfunction
	Cerebrovascular Accident
	Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)
Progressive Disorders of the Central Nervous System (CNS-P)
	Alzheimer's Disease
	Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS or "Lou Gehrig's Disease")
	Cerebellar Degeneration
	HIV Infection
	Huntington's Disease/Huntington's Chorea
	Lyme Disease
	Multiple Sclerosis
	Parkinson's Disease
Peripheral Nerve Injury (PNI)
	Bell's Palsy
	HIV Infection
	Sciatica
	Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
	Radial Nerve Injury
	Ulnar Nerve Injury (Entrapment)
	Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV)
	Meniere's Disease
	Trigeminal neuralgia (Tic Douloureux)
Acute or Chronic Polyneuropathies
	Axonal Polyneuropathy
	Guillain-Barré Syndrome
Nonprogressive Disorders of the Spinal Cord (Spinal Cord Injury [SCI])
References
Index
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 2

NeuroNeuro
NotesNotes

Clinical Pocket Guide

Claudia B. Fenderson, PT, EdD, PCS
Wen K. Ling, PT, PhD

Purchase additional copies of this book at your
health science bookstore or directly from F.A.
Davis by shopping online at www.fadavis.com or
by calling 800-323-3555 (US) or 800-665-1148 (CAN)

A Davis Note’s Book

F.A. Davis Company • Philadelphia

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Page 167

■ Memory deficits, including declarative and procedural memory
■ Executive function deficits

Assistive and Adaptive Devices
Assessment – Assess the need for

■ Ambulatory devices, including straight canes, quad canes, hemi
walkers, and walkers (if there is adequate UE function)

■ Assistive devices to aid in dressing and other ADLs
■ Complete the Wheelchair checklist

Potential findings
There may be a need for:

■ A one-arm drive WC
■ A sling for glenohumeral support

Circulation
Considerations

■ Existing cardiac issues may impact rehabilitation

Assessment – Assess

■ Vital signs and assess for dyspnea during assessment and intervention
■ Edema (Refer to Tab 2)

Potential findings

■ Edema may occur in affected limbs and is associated with shoulder-
hand syndrome

Cranial and Peripheral Nerve Integrity (Refer to Tab 2)
Assessment – Assess

■ Cranial nerve function
■ Superficial sensations

Potential findings include

■ Visual field deficits
■ Weakness and sensory loss in facial musculature
■ Deficits in laryngeal and pharyngeal function
■ Hypoactive gag reflex
■ Diminished, but perceived, superficial sensations

161

CNS-NP

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CNS-NP

162

Environmental, Home, and Work Barriers
Assessment

■ Environmental Assessment (Refer to Tab 2)

Gait, Locomotion, and Balance
Balance assessment (Refer to Tab 2)

■ Berg Balance Scale
■ Timed Get Up and Go
■ Postural Assessment Scale for Stroke (see following)

Gait and locomotion assessment (Refer to Tab 2)

■ Record parameters of gait as listed in Tab 2
■ Describe the level of assistance needed

■ Timed Get-Up and Go
■ 6-minute Walk Test
■ 4-Item Dynamic Gait Index
■ Performance Oriented Mobility Assessment

Potential findings
Common deviations following stroke include:

■ Decreased extension of the hip and hyperextension of the knee
■ Decreased flexion of the knee and hip during swing phase
■ Decreased knee flexion at pre-swing and mid-swing
■ Increased knee extension during forward progression
■ Decreased ankle dorsiflexion at initial contact and during stance
■ Retraction of the pelvis and trunk throughout the gait cycle
■ Increased ankle plantarflexion and hip circumduction
■ Trendelenburg or compensated Trendelenburg

Integumentary Integrity
Considerations

■ Sensory loss and neglect can result in injury and pressure sores
■ Patient may not be able to describe pain associated with skin

breakdown

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Page 333

Milani-Comparetti Motor
Development Screening Test,
102–103

Mini-Mental State Examination
(MMSE), sample items, 19

Mobility index, Rivermead, 68
Motor Development Screening

Test, Milani-Comparetti, 102–103
Motor function neuroanatomy and

pathology, 9t
Motor proficiency, Gubbay test of,

108t–110t
Movement Order Society-

Sponsored Revision of the
Unified Parkinson’s Disease
Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS),
250t–252t

Multiple sclerosis, 235–243
Muscular dystrophy (MD), 118–125
Myelomeningocele, 141

neurological syndromes with,
145t

Neurological status, changes in,
159t

Obstetrical brachial plexus palsy,
129, 130t

Orthostatic (postural) hypotension,
174t, 305t

Parkinson’s disease, 243–254
Pathways Awareness Foundation

Growth and Development Chart,
70t–72t

Pediatric balance scale, 54t–58t
Performance-oriented mobility

assessment, 48t–51t
Peripheral nerve injury (PNI),

255–263
Bell’s palsy, 255–257

of HIV infection, 257–263
of lower limbs, 263–267

Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL),
126

Physical development, 17–18,
70t–72t
signs to watch for, 72–74

Polyneuropathy
autonomic, 287t
axonal, 287–294

Prematurity, 126–129
Pressure sores, classification of,

64t

Radial nerve injury, 271–272
Rancho Los Amigos Levels of

Cognitive Function, 185t–192
Ransford Pain Drawings, 76
Reach

functional, normal values, 40t
multi-directional, values for

older adults, 41t
Reflexes, grading of, 81t
Rett syndrome, 135–139, 136t
Rivermead Mobility index, 68

Sacral nerve roots, segmental
nerve supply of, 146f

Sciatica, 263–267
Scoliosis, Adam’s Forward Bend

Test for, 79
Seizures, 175t

types and descriptions,
111t–113t

Sensory function neuroanatomy
and pathology, 8t

Shaken baby syndrome (SBS),
139–140

Shoulder pain, 306t
Spasticity, modified Ashworth

Scale for, 82t

327

INDEX

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INDEX

328

Spina bifida (SB), 140–141
Spinal cord injury, 303–321

autonomic dysreflexia, 304t
deep vein thrombosis, 305t
heterotopic ossification, 306t
impairment scale, 319t
orthostatic hypotension, 305t
shoulder pain, 306t
urinary tract infection, 307t
vertebral compression fractures,

307t

Tests and measures
directory of, 4t–7t

Tinetti’s Falls Efficacy Scale, 59t
Traumatic brain injury (TBI),

173–193

deep vein thrombosis, 174t
dysphagia, 175t
heterotopic ossification, 175t
orthostatic hypotension, 174t
seizures, 175t

Trigeminal neuralgia (tic
douloureux), 284–286

Ulnar nerve injury (entrapment),
273–276

Universal Pain Assessment Tool,
77

Urinary tract infection, 307t

Vertebral compression fractures,
307t

Vital signs, normal values, 14t

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