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Page 1

Periodization
Theory and Methodology

of Training

Fifth Edition

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Page 177

annual training Plan 165

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E4492/Bompa/Periodization, 5E/333304/Fig 06.24/Tammy Page/R3-alw

Toronto
Windsor
Toronto

Windsor
Toronto
Toronto
Kingston
Sudbury
Toronto
London
Toronto
Waterloo
Toronto

Waterloo

Winnipeg

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Periodization

In the example presented in figure 6.24, the periodization section is expanded
compared with figure 6.23. Included in this section are elements of periodization
for strength, endurance, speed, and nutrition. The periodization section can be
manipulated to include elements that meet the specific demands of the individual
athlete or requirements of the sport.

The ratios between the training factors are different in figures 6.24 and 6.23
as a result of the specific requirements of a team sport. In this example, technical
and tactical preparation has a higher emphasis. In the first macrocycle, physical

Figure 6.24 Monocycle annual training plan for a hypothetical volleyball team.
Prep = preparation, T = transition, AA = anatomical adaptation, Mxs = maximal strength, Conv pow =
conversion power, regen = regenerate, end = endurance, tech = technical, Adv skill prep = advanced
skill preparation, Dev comp strat = develop competitive strategies, cal = calories, carb = carbohydrates.

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166 Periodization

preparation is the dominant factor, as it should be with most sports, especially when
there is a long preparatory phase, because the athlete must first develop a physical
foundation. Without solid physical development the athlete may not be able to per-
form the technical maneuvers required by the sport. For example, without significant
muscular strength in the lower body, the athlete may not be able to generate enough
force to jump high enough to spike the ball or block incoming balls.

The volume and intensity curves are presented as horizontal lines to represent
a step-loading pattern and illustrate their percentages, compared with figure 6.23
where curves are used to show the need to stress the intensity component at a much
earlier stage of preparation. In figure 6.24 the volume of training is elevated in the
first four macrocycles, with the intensity curve elevating during the fifth macrocycle.
This reflects the development of maximal strength and the emphasis on game-specific
endurance, agility, and reaction time. Throughout the competitive phase, intensity
remains high, reflecting training activities at this time and the stress of competitions.

Peaking Index
A new parameter is introduced in figure 6.24, the peaking or preparedness index
(58, 79, 92). This index represents the athlete’s level of preparedness to compete and
reflects the athlete’s physiological, technical, tactical, and psychological status (table
6.4). To modulate the athlete’s level of preparedness, the training factors must be
manipulated to dissipate fatigue, thus elevating the athlete’s preparedness to perform.
In this process competitions must be prioritized; it would be impossible to peak for
every competition because fitness would begin to decline attributable to spending too
much time at low volumes or intensities of training. Thus varying levels of emphasis
should be placed on specific competitions. Except for high-priority competitions, it
is not essential for the athlete (especially elite athletes and teams) to peak for every
competition. In sports in which the competitive phase is long and there are many
competitions, it is not feasible to achieve a true peak for each competition. The athlete
should achieve his highest level of preparedness (peak) for the main competition at
the end of the competitive phase. Therefore, it may be warranted to approach many of
the competitions in the competitive phase of the annual training plan without peak-
ing, thus effectively training through the competition and using minimal unloading
strategies prior to these competitions. If peaking strategies that include unloading
for every competition in the competitive phase (let’s say 12 games over 6 months in
American university football or 60 games over 10 months in premier league soccer)

were used, significantly lower train-
ing volumes and intensities would
occur in the competitive phase,
which would reduce physiological
function, muscular strength, physi-
cal preparation, and preparedness to
perform across the season. However,
this does not mean the athlete will
not focus on each game. Rather the
athlete and coach must determine
the optimal approach to take or the
degree of unloading to use prior to
the competition.

Coaches should use the greatest
amount of unloading when target-

Table 6.4 Description of the Peaking Index
Peaking index Level of preparedness (%)

1 100

2 90

3 70-80

4 60

5 ≤50

The peaking index will be modulated by alterations in training
load (volume and intensity) and will reflect the athlete’s level of
fatigue, which directly affects preparedness. high levels of fatigue
will decrease preparedness, whereas low levels of fatigue will
increase preparedness. however, if fitness declines too much in
response to prolonged periods of low volume and intensities of
training, preparedness will decline.H
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Page 353

Speed and Agility Training 341

depending on time restraints. Speed endurance is developed in accordance with the
strategies of tactical metabolic training (92) where three or four repetitive bouts of
exercise that last no longer than 10 min are used to develop oxidative capacity and
the ability to buffer lactate (91). The durations used for speed endurance are similar
to the intensive tempo runs presented in table 12.1.

During macrocycle 2 the emphasis shifts, with a decreasing density and frequency
of strength training (12 sessions: 3 per microcycle) and an increase in the density
and frequency of both speed and agility training and speed endurance training. In
this macrocycle major emphasis is the development of speed endurance via the use
of 2 or 3 min interval bouts that are separated by 8 to 10 min of recovery (91). These
types of intervals are similar to the special endurance training practices presented
in table 12.1.

Once macrocycle 3 is initiated, the density and frequency of training increase for
strength training, whereas the density of both speed and agility training and special
endurance training decreases (activities that model the specifics of American football).
Activities such as intensive tempo training are used in this macrocycle to maintain
the oxidative and glycolytic adaptations established in previous macrocycles. This
is accomplished by using simulated quarters in which the exercise work-to-rest pat-
terns closely match what is seen in a game of American football (39, 91, 92). In the last
macrocycle the density and frequency of strength training are reduced, whereas the
density and frequency of speed and agility training and special endurance training
(e.g., activities used in macrocycle 3) are maintained.

Microcycle
Once the characteristics of the macrocycle are established, the individual microcycles
can be constructed. One of the main factors dictating the construction of the micro-
cycles contained in a speed, agility, or speed endurance portion of an annual training
plan is the management of fatigue (91). The management of fatigue is important
because high levels of fatigue can affect the athlete’s ability to effectively perform
speed- and agility-based drills with appropriate technique. It is advisable that the
athlete perform speed- and agility-based activities under a minimal amount of fatigue
to maximize technical proficiency and allow for the mastery of skills. This requires
that the athlete perform these activities after completing an appropriate warm-up
that emphasizes a combination of general and specific warm-up activities (54); as
well, the coach must incorporate adequate rest between repetitions or sets. It may
be warranted to organize the different training components into multiple sessions
within the training day (figure 12.8).

Unlike speed and agility training, speed endurance training is designed to increase
the athlete’s ability to resist and tolerate fatigue. This is accomplished by specifically
taxing the metabolic systems (92, 91) by manipulating training variables such as the
work-to-rest interval, duration, and intensity of the sprint bout. Increasing the volume
of multiple bouts of sprinting can result in very specific metabolic adaptations that
can aid in the development of speed endurance.

When expanding the macrocycle structure for the American football example
presented in figure 12.7, the coach can construct a microcycle model (figure 12.8).
In this model sequenced training blocks are used with alterations in the density and
frequency of training for each training factor. Because multiple factors are trained on
the same day, fatigue management is important, so splitting the factors into distinct
training sessions within the day is warranted.H
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Page 354

342 Periodization

Month Macrocycle Weeks Emphasis Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday

May 1 1-3 Strength training ST ST ST ST

Speed and agility SA SA

Speed endurance SE SE

Special
endurance

June 2 4-7 Strength training ST ST ST

Speed and agility SA SA SA

Speed endurance SE SE SE

Special
endurance

July 3 8-10 Strength training ST ST ST ST

Speed and agility SA SA

Speed endurance

Special
endurance

SPE SPE SPE

4 11-14 Strength training ST ST ST

August Speed and agility SA SA SA

Speed endurance

Special
endurance

SPE SPE SPE

Figure 12.8 Microcycle structure for a 14-week sequenced preparation phase of training plan for university
or professional American football.
ST = strength training; SA= speed agility, SE= speed endurance, and SPE= special endurance. on days when multiple
activities are scheduled, the activities must be separated so that one factor is addressed in a morning session and the other
at least 4 hr later. If time constraints dictate that both factors must be trained in the same session, the priority item should be
addressed first. on days when SA and ST occur, the ST generally for this session focuses on upper-body activities.
Adapted from Plisk 2008 (91) and Haff et al. 2004 (39).

SuMMary oF Major ConCeptS
The development of speed, agility, and speed endurance is important for the majority
of sports, so these important sport performance characteristics must be integrated
into the periodized training plan. Long-distance training methods will impede the
development of both speed and agility and should be avoided when attempting to
maximize these performance abilities. Both maximal strength and power are impor-
tant characteristics, which emphasizes the need for an integrated strength training
program for athletes who are attempting to maximize speed performance.

Some very specific movement mechanics are essential to maximizing an athlete’s
speed of movement (see Plisk 91) and facilitate change-of-direction activities. Although
speed plays a role in change-of-direction performance, change-of-direction or agil-
ity activities must be included in the periodized training plan. Simply practicing
straight-line running will not significantly improve agility. Many athletes spend large
amounts of time performing straight-line training tasks, but it may be warranted to
use more change-of-direction tasks that emphasize acceleration, deceleration, changes
in direction, and reacceleration activities. It also may be warranted to include the
implements used in competition (e.g., soccer ball, basketball).H
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