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TitlePrinciples of Geotechnical Engineering
TagsGeotechnical Engineering Geotechnical
File Size33.1 MB
Total Pages770
Table of Contents
Title Page
About the Authors
Ch 1: Geotechnical Engineering—A Historical Perspective
	1.1 Introduction
	1.2 Geotechnical Engineering Prior to the 18th Century
	1.3 Preclassical Period of Soil Mechanics (1700–1776)
	1.4 Classical Soil Mechanics—Phase I (1776–1856)
	1.5 Classical Soil Mechanics—Phase II (1856–1910)
	1.6 Modern Soil Mechanics (1910–1927)
	1.7 Geotechnical Engineering after 1927
	1.8 End of an Era
Ch 2: Origin of Soil and Grain Size
	2.1 Introduction
	2.2 Rock Cycle and the Origin of Soil
	2.3 Rock-Forming Minerals, Rock and Rock Structures
	2.4 Soil-Particle Size
	2.5 Clay Minerals
	2.6 Specific Gravity (Gs)
	2.7 Mechanical Analysis of Soil
	2.8 Particle-Size Distribution Curve
	2.9 Particle Shape
	2.10 Summary
	Critical Thinking Problem
Ch 3: Weight–Volume Relationships
	3.1 Introduction
	3.2 Weight–Volume Relationships
	3.3 Relationships among Unit Weight, Void Ratio, Moisture Content, and Specific Gravity
	3.4 Relationships among Unit Weight, Porosity, and Moisture Content
	3.5 Various Unit Weight Relationships
	3.6 Relative Density
	3.7 Comments on emax and emin
	3.8 Correlations between emax, emin, emax – emin, and Median Grain Size (D50)
	3.9 Summary
	Critical Thinking Problems
Ch 4: Plasticity and Structure of Soil
	4.1 Introduction
	4.2 Liquid Limit (LL)
	4.3 Plastic Limit (PL)
	4.4 Shrinkage Limit (SL)
	4.5 Liquidity Index and Consistency Index
	4.6 Activity
	4.7 Plasticity Chart
	4.8 Soil Structure
	4.9 Summary
	Critical Thinking Problems
Ch 5: Classification of Soil
	5.1 Introduction
	5.2 Textural Classification
	5.3 Classification by Engineering Behavior
	5.4 AASHTO Classification System
	5.5 Unified Soil Classification System
	5.6 Comparison between the AASHTO and Unified Systems
	5.7 Summary
	Critical Thinking Problem
Ch 6: Soil Compaction
	6.1 Introduction
	6.2 Compaction—General Principles
	6.3 Standard Proctor Test
	6.4 Factors Affecting Compaction
	6.5 Modified Proctor Test
	6.6 Empirical Relationships
	6.7 Structure of Compacted Clay Soil
	6.8 Effect of Compaction on Cohesive Soil Properties
	6.9 Field Compaction
	6.10 Specifications for Field Compaction
	6.11 Determination of Field Unit Weight of Compaction
	6.12 Compaction of Organic Soil and Waste Materials
	6.13 Evaluation of Soils as Compaction Material
	6.14 Special Compaction Techniques
	6.15 Summary and General Comments
	Critical Thinking Problem
Ch 7: Permeability
	7.1 Introduction
	7.2 Bernoulli’s Equation
	7.3 Darcy’s Law
	7.4 Hydraulic Conductivity
	7.5 Laboratory Determination of Hydraulic Conductivity
	7.6 Relationships for Hydraulic Conductivity—Granular Soil
	7.7 Relationships for Hydraulic Conductivity—Cohesive Soils
	7.8 Directional Variation of Permeability
	7.9 Equivalent Hydraulic Conductivity in Stratified Soil
	7.10 Permeability Test in the Field by Pumping from Wells
	7.11 In Situ Hydraulic Conductivity of Compacted Clay Soils
	7.12 Summary and General Comments
	Critical Thinking Problem
Ch 8: Seepage
	8.1 Introduction
	8.2 Laplace’s Equation of Continuity
	8.3 Continuity Equation for Solution of Simple Flow Problems
	8.4 Flow Nets
	8.5 Seepage Calculation from a Flow Net
	8.6 Flow Nets in Anisotropic Soil
	8.7 Mathematical Solution for Seepage
	8.8 Uplift Pressure under Hydraulic Structures
	8.9 Seepage through an Earth Dam on an Impervious Base
	8.10 L. Casagrande’s Solution for Seepage through an Earth Dam
	8.11 Filter Design
	8.12 Summary
Ch 9: In Situ Stresses
	9.1 Introduction
	9.2 Stresses in Saturated Soil without Seepage
	9.3 Stresses in Saturated Soil with Upward Seepage
	9.4 Stresses in Saturated Soil with Downward Seepage
	9.5 Seepage Force
	9.6 Heaving in Soil Due to Flow around Sheet Piles
	9.7 Use of Filters to Increase the Factor of Safety against Heave
	9.8 Effective Stress in Partially Saturated Soil
	9.9 Capillary Rise in Soils
	9.10 Effective Stress in the Zone of Capillary Rise
	9.11 Summary and General Comments
	Critical Thinking Problem
Ch 10: Stresses in a Soil Mass
	10.1 Introduction
	10.2 Normal and Shear Stresses on a Plane
	10.3 The Pole Method of Finding Stresses along a Plane
	10.4 Stresses Caused by a Point Load
	10.5 Vertical Stress Caused by a Vertical Line Load
	10.6 Vertical Stress Caused by a Horizontal Line Load
	10.7 Vertical Stress Caused by a Vertical Strip Load (Finite Width and Infinite Length)
	10.8 Linearly Increasing Vertical Loading on an Infinite Strip
	10.9 Vertical Stress Due to Embankment Loading
	10.10 Vertical Stress below the Center of a Uniformly Loaded Circular Area
	10.11 Vertical Stress at Any Point below a Uniformly Loaded Circular Area
	10.12 Vertical Stress Caused by a Rectangularly Loaded Area
	10.13 Influence Chart for Vertical Pressure
	10.14 Summary and General Comments
	Critical Thinking Problem
Ch 11: Compressibility of Soil
	11.1 Introduction
	11.2 Contact Pressure and Settlement Profile
	11.3 Relations for Elastic Settlement Calculation
	11.4 Fundamentals of Consolidation
	11.5 One-Dimensional Laboratory Consolidation Test
	11.6 Void Ratio–Pressure Plots
	11.7 Normally Consolidated and Overconsolidated Clays
	11.8 General Comments on Conventional Consolidation Test
	11.9 Effect of Disturbance on Void Ratio–Pressure Relationship
	11.10 Calculation of Settlement from One-Dimensional Primary Consolidation
	11.11 Correlations for Compression Index (Cc)
	11.12 Correlations for Swell Index (Cs)
	11.13 Secondary Consolidation Settlement
	11.14 Time Rate of Consolidation
	11.15 Determination of Coefficient of Consolidation
	11.16 Calculation of Consolidation Settlement under a Foundation
	11.17 A Case History—Settlement Due to a Preload Fill for Construction of Tampa VA Hospital
	11.18 Methods for Accelerating Consolidation Settlement
	11.19 Precompression
	11.20 Summary and General Comments
	Critical Thinking Problem
Ch 12: Shear Strength of Soil
	12.1 Introduction
	12.2 Mohr–Coulomb Failure Criterion
	12.3 Inclination of the Plane of Failure Caused by Shear
	12.4 Laboratory Test for Determination of Shear Strength Parameters
	12.5 Direct Shear Test
	12.6 Drained Direct Shear Test on Saturated Sand and Clay
	12.7 General Comments on Direct Shear Test
	12.8 Triaxial Shear Test-General
	12.9 Consolidated-Drained Triaxial Test
	12.10 Consolidated-Undrained Triaxial Test
	12.11 Unconsolidated-Undrained Triaxial Test
	12.12 Unconfined Compression Test on Saturated Clay
	12.13 Empirical Relationships between Undrained Cohesion (Cu) and Effective Overburden Pressure (σ́ o)
	12.14 Sensitivity and Thixotropy of Clay
	12.15 Strength Anisotropy in Clay
	12.16 Vane Shear Test
	12.17 Other Methods for Determining Undrained Shear Strength
	12.18 Shear Strength of Unsaturated Cohesive Soils
	12.19 Stress Path
	12.20 Summary and General Comments
	Critical Thinking Problem
Ch 13: Lateral Earth Pressure: At-Rest, Rankine, and Coulomb
	13.1 Introduction
	13.2 At-Rest, Active, and Passive Pressures
	13.3 Earth Pressure At-Rest
	13.4 Earth Pressure At-Rest for Partially Submerged Soil
	13.5 Rankine’s Theory of Active Pressure
	13.6 Theory of Rankine’s Passive Pressure
	13.7 Yielding of Wall of Limited Height
	13.8 Rankine Active and Passive Pressure with Sloping Backfill
	13.9 Diagrams for Lateral Earth-Pressure Distribution against Retaining Walls
	13.10 Coulomb’s Active Pressure
	13.11 Graphic Solution for Coulomb’s Active Earth Pressure
	13.12 Coulomb’s Passive Pressure
	13.13 Active Force on Retaining Walls with Earthquake Forces
	13.14 Common Types of Retaining Walls in the Field
	13.15 Summary and General Comments
	Critical Thinking Problem
Ch 14: Lateral Earth Pressure: Curved Failure Surface
	14.1 Introduction
	14.2 Retaining Walls with Friction
	14.3 Properties of a Logarithmic Spiral
	14.4 Procedure for Determination of Passive Earth Pressure (Pp)—Cohesionless Backfill
	14.5 Coefficient of Passive Earth Pressure (Kp)
	14.6 Caquot and Kerisel Solution for Passive Earth Pressure (Granular Backfill)
	14.7 Passive Force on Walls with Earthquake Forces
	14.8 Braced Cuts—General
	14.9 Determination of Active Thrust on Bracing Systems of Open Cuts—Granular Soil
	14.10 Determination of Active Thrust on Bracing Systems for Cuts—Cohesive Soil
	14.11 Pressure Variation for Design of Sheetings, Struts, and Wales
	14.12 Summary
Ch 15: Slope Stability
	15.1 Introduction
	15.2 Factor of Safety
	15.3 Stability of Infinite Slopes
	15.4 Infinite Slope with Steady-state Seepage
	15.5 Finite Slopes—General
	15.6 Analysis of Finite Slopes with Plane Failure Surfaces (Culmann’s Method)
	15.7 Analysis of Finite Slopes with Circular Failure Surfaces—General
	15.8 Mass Procedure—Slopes in Homogeneous Clay Soil with Ø = 0
	15.9 Recent Developments on Critical Circle of Clay Slopes (Ø = 0)
	15.10 Mass Procedure—Slopes in Homogeneous Ć ― Ǿ́́́' Soil
	15.11 Ordinary Method of Slices
	15.12 Bishop’s Simplified Method of Slices
	15.13 Stability Analysis by Method of Slices for Steady-state Seepage
	15.14 Solutions for Steady-state Seepage
	15.15 A Case History of Slope Failure
	15.16 Morgenstern’s Method of Slices for Rapid Drawdown Condition
	15.17 Fluctuation of Factor of Safety of Slopes in Clay Embankment on Saturated Clay
	15.18 Summary
Ch 16: Soil Bearing Capacity for Shallow Foundations
	16.1 Introduction
	16.2 Ultimate Soil-Bearing Capacity for Shallow Foundations
	16.3 Terzaghi’s Ultimate Bearing Capacity Equation
	16.4 Effect of Groundwater Table
	16.5 Factor of Safety
	16.6 General Bearing Capacity Equation
	16.7 A Case History for Evaluation of the Ultimate Bearing Capacity
	16.8 Ultimate Load for Shallow Foundations Under Eccentric Load
	16.9 Bearing Capacity of Sand Based on Settlement
	16.10 Plate-Load Test
	16.11 Summary and General Comments
	Critical Thinking Problem
Ch 17: Subsoil Exploration
	17.1 Introduction
	17.2 Planning for Soil Exploration
	17.3 Boring Methods
	17.4 Common Sampling Methods
	17.5 Sample Disturbance
	17.6 Correlations for Standard Penetration Test
	17.7 Other In Situ Tests
	17.8 Rock Coring
	17.9 Soil Exploration Report
	17.10 Summary
Appendix - A
Answers to Selected Problems

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