Download Understanding chemical reactions using electronegativity and resonance — Master Organic Chemistry PDF

TitleUnderstanding chemical reactions using electronegativity and resonance — Master Organic Chemistry
TagsAlkene Alcohol Aldehyde Ester Amine
File Size735.3 KB
Total Pages16
Document Text Contents
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electronegativities, there will be a dipole (two opposite charges separated in space). That dipole will

give you a clue about the electron densities of those two atoms. For example in the molecule below,

the oxygen is more electronegative than carbon which means that the C–O bond will be polarized

towards oxygen (it will have a higher electron density). This is different than formal charge, which

is where we have to assign a charge to an atom for “accounting” purposes.

2. Applying resonance: when you know the most stable two (or three) resonance forms, you’ll have a

good idea of what the resonance hybrid looks like. The resonance hybrid also tells you electron

densities, sometimes in a way that isn’t immediately apparent from electronegativity (see below).

Here’s some examples of resonance hybrids, along with the electron densities we get from applying both

electronegativity and resonance. In the picture, the partial charges (δ) represent electron densities on the


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About Master Organic Chemistry

Imagine having a comprehensive online guide to help you solve your own problems in organic

chemistry. That's my mission with this site. After earning a Ph.D. at McGill and doing a postdoc at

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SN1/SN2/E1/E2 Decision – Overview

SN1/SN2/E1/E2 Decision – Solvent

SN1/SN2/E1/E2 Decision – Temperature

SN1/SN2/E1/E2 Decision – The Nucleophile/Base

SN1: Applying the SN1 Reaction

SN2 Exercise: Apply the SN2

SN2 Exercise: Leaving Groups

SN2 Exercise: The Substrate

Solvents in SN1 and SN2 Reactions

Stereochemistry Exercise 1

Stereochemistry Exercise 2

Stereochemistry Exercise 3

Stereochemistry Exercise 4

Stereochemistry Exercise 5

Strong and Weak Acids

Substitution: What is Substitution?

The 4 Components of Every Acid Base Reaction

The E1 Reaction

The Golden Rule of Acid Base Reactions

The Single Swap Rule

The SN1 Mechanism

The SN2 Mechanism

The SN2 Reaction Energy Diagram

Understanding R/S Relationships

Unequal Resonance Forms

Using Electronegativity to Find Reactive Sites on a Molecule

What Makes A Good Leaving Group?

What Makes A Good Nucleophile? (1)

What Makes A Good Nucleophile? (2)

What Makes A Good Nucleophile? (3)

What’s A Nucleophile?

Zaitsev’s Rule

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