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Table of Contents
                            Cover
Contents
Acknowledgments
A Note from the Author
Prologue
PART 1: ASIA
	1 Mystery Woman of Jakarta
	2 Pirating Lepers
	3 Geishas
	4 The Bugiman
	5 A Corrupt and Brutal Country
	6 Sweatshops
	7 United States-Supported Slaughter
	8 Tsunami Profiteering
	9 Fruits of Corruption
	10 Attacked and Beaten in Indonesia
	11 Don't Become a Buddhist
	12 Biological Imperatives
	13 Dictatorships of Finance
	14 The Quiet Giant
PART 2: LATIN AMERICA
	15 Hired Guns in Guatemala
	16 Obsessed with Anger
	17 Recruited as President of Bolivia Power
	18 Maximizing Profits in La Paz
	19 Changing the Dream
	20 Venezuela's Chavez
	21 Ecuador: Betrayed by a President
	22 Bolivia: Bechtel and the Water Wars
	23 Brazil: Skeletons in the Closet
	24 The Beautiful Carioca
	25 Taking on the Empire
	26 Kindred Spirits
	27 A History of Assassinations
	28 Lessons from Latin America
PART 3: THE MIDDLE EAST
	29 A Bankrupt United States of America
	30 King Dollar
	31 Manipulating Governments
	32 Lebanon: “Stark Raving Mad”
	33 USAID Speaks
	34 Egypt: Controlling Africa
	35 Infidel Dog
	36 Iran: Highways and Fortresses
	37 Israel: America's Foot Soldier
	38 The Iraq-Iran War: Another EHM Victory
	39 Qatar and Dubai: Las Vegas in the Land of Mullahs
	40 Into the Abyss
PART 4: AFRICA
	41 Modern Conquistadors
	42 Sitting in America's Lap
	43 A Jackal Is Born
	44 The "Non-Peoples" of Diego Garcia
	45 Assassinating a President
	46 The Highjacking of an Air India 707
	47 An Environmentalist Is Executed
	48 The Least Understood Continent
	49 NGOs: A Stake in Keeping Africa Poor
	50 Laptops, Cell Phones, and Cars
	51 Ex-Peace Corps Volunteers Offer Hope
	52 Resolved: To Turn Things Around
PART 5: CHANGING THE WORLD
	53 Four Essential Questions
	54 Change Is Possible
	55 Modern Minutemen
	56 Changing the Myth
	57 The New Capitalism
	58 A List of Grievances
	59 Facing Our Fears
	60 Changing Wall Street Through Financial Leverage
	61 Buying Off Third-world Debt
	62 Five Commonalities
	63 Times of Opportunity
	64 The Most Important Question of Our Time
	65 Today Is the Day
App. A - Organizations Described in This Book
App. B - Entry Points for Living Democracy
App. C - Recommended Reading
Notes
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 2

THE SECRET HISTORY OF THE
AMERICAN EMPIRE

ECONOMIC HIT MEN, JACKALS, AND THE TRUTH
ABOUT GLOBAL CORRUPTION

BY JOHN PERKINS

Contents
Acknowledgments
A Note from the Author
Prologue
Part 1: Asia
i Mystery Woman of Jakarta
2 Pirating Lepers
3 Geishas
4 The Bugiman
5 A Corrupt and Brutal Country
6 Sweatshops
7 United States-Supported Slaughter
8 Tsunami Profiteering
9 Fruits of Corruption
10 Attacked and Beaten in Indonesia
11 Don't Become a Buddhist
12 Biological Imperatives
13 Dictatorships of Finance
14 The Quiet Giant

Part 2: Latin America
15 Hired Guns in Guatemala
16 Obsessed with Anger
17 Recruited as President of Bolivia Power
18 Maximizing Profits in La Paz

Page 114

Nationalistic fervor swept many countries during World War II. Lebanon gained
full independence on January 1, 1944. A National Covenant accepted by the two most
prominent Christian and Muslim leaders, Bishara al-Khuri and Riyad el Sulh,
apportioned political power among the nation's various communities. Drawing on the
1932 census that calculated Christians at 54 percent of the population, it mandated that
the president would be a member of the majority, the Maronite Christians, while the less
powerful prime minister would come from the Sunni population and the speaker of the
legislature would be Shi'a; the commander of the army would be a Maronite. Many
Arabs, feeling that the twelve-year-old census was archaic and that Muslims in fact
outnumbered Christians, were outraged at this arrangement that tipped the scales in favor
of the Christians in Lebanon—and the West in general.

Arabs also suspected that newly created Israel was not all that it appeared to be.
The only country ever mandated by the U.N. and a place that Jews called their "promised
land," Israel was offered as a sanctuary after the horrors of Hitler. The Arabs, like
Americans and Europeans, were told that the atrocities committed against the Jews
necessitated the creation of such a state. The suffering of the Jewish people, the traumas
of their lives under fascism, were indisputable. There could be no question that the world
owed them something better. But in order for this to happen, millions of Palestinians
were told they had to give up their homes. Turned overnight into refugees, they flooded
into Lebanon and every other Middle Eastern country.

The Palestinian influx confirmed that the 1932 census was irrelevant; there could
be no doubt that Muslims now outnumbered Christians in Lebanon. The realization that
the National Covenant was being used as a political weapon was further proof for
Muslins that there was a second, more sinister purpose behind the creation of Israel, that
it was a servant of empire, an armed outpost for the victors of World War II, designed to
control Middle Eastern oil. Lebanon, they suspected, was being groomed to support Israel
and its allies; the Christian leadership established by the National Covenant was part of a
sinister plot.

Lebanese Arab resentment erupted into a Muslim rebellion in 1958. U.S.
politicians blamed "communist terrorists." Washington accused Moscow of fomenting
this uprising, although it was backed by Syria more than the U.S.S.R. President
Eisenhower sent in the marines. U.S. forces occupied Lebanon for only a brief period,
from May until October, but their presence confirmed Arab suspicions that Washington
was determined to keep the Christians in power. The U.S. president's willingness to
interfere militarily had a profound long-term impact on Muslims throughout the region.

Lebanon was also incensed by Washington's aggressive interference in nearby
Iraq. During the late 1950s and early 1960s the popular Iraqi president Abdul Karim
Qasim grew increasingly defiant toward the United States and the United Kingdom. He
demanded that foreign oil companies share the profits they reaped from Iraqi oil with his
people and threatened to nationalize them if they did not comply. When EHM efforts
failed to bring Qasim around, the CIA hired an assassination team that included a young
man who had not yet completed his schooling: Saddam Hussein. The team opened fire on
Qasim's car. They riddled it with bullets, but only managed to wound him. Saddam was

Page 115

shot in the leg and fled to Syria. In 1963, President Kennedy made a fateful decision; he
ordered the CIA to join MI6 (British intelligence) on a mission to accomplish what the
assassins had failed to do. They executed Qasim by firing squad on Iraqi television. After
that, an estimated five thousand people were rounded up, accused of communism, and
executed. Within a few years Saddam was brought back and installed as head of national
security; his second cousin became president.34

During this same period the demographics in Lebanon were changing radically.
Muslim populations expanded faster than the Christian. In the late 1960s, they demanded
revisions in the National Covenant. However, Maronites refused, continuing to dominate
the government. The threat that Washington would send in troops once again to support
the Christians was underscored when the United States reinstated the military draft and
built up its armed forces around the world.

Geopolitics also changed. In the 1967 Six-Day War, Israel seized parts of
Jerusalem, Syria, and Egypt. The Arab world was outraged. Support for Palestinian
militants grew. The PLO (Palestine Liberation Organization) used refugee camps in
southern Lebanon to stage attacks on Israel.

By the time I headed for Beirut in 1973, the last semblance of stability was
unraveling. Yet, like most Americans who did not speak Arabic and therefore
communicated only with or through men educated in American or British schools and
whose success depended on our continued presence in their country, I was extremely
naive. I could read about the dark history of places like Lebanon; I understood that there
were deep-seated antagonisms between Arabs, Christians, and Jews; but I had been
trained to believe that capitalism would work miracles. I had recently been promoted. I
was flying first class, staying in the best hotels, and dining at the finest restaurants—
frequently accompanied by beautiful women. Along with all the other U.S. businessmen,
consultants, and government officials, and the "experts" at the World Bank and the IMF,
I was confident that we were making great strides toward democracy and progress
throughout the Middle East.

Lebanon would open my eyes to a different reality.

Page 227

Committee on International Relations, Suffering and Despair:
Humanitarian Crisis in the Congo: Hearing Before the
Subcommittee on International Operations and Human Rights,
107th Cong., May 17, 2001.

45. Robinson and Walt, "The Deadliest War in the World," p.
39.

>4946. For more information, see Joan Baxter, "Mali's David
v. Goliath GM Struggle," BBC News, Dec. 7, 2005,
news.bbc.co.Uk/2/hi/africa/4445824.stm.

Part 5: Changing the World

47. David C. Korten, When Corporations Rule the World
(San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler, 1995). See Joel Bakan, The
Corporation: The Pathological Pursuit of Profit and Power (New
York: Penguin, 2004) and The Corporation, DVD, directed by
Mark Achbar and Jennifer Abbott (Zeitgeist Films, 2004).

48. Dr. Riane Eisler, The Real Wealth of Nations, Ch. 10, p.
9, galley proofs.

49. Quote from and more information at Amnesty
International Web site, www.amnesty.org.

50. MoveOn, www.moveon.org, accessed July 31, 2006.

51. Quotes from Thomson Gale, "Black History: Jesse
Jackson," www.gale.com/ free_resources/bhm/bio/jackson_j.htm
(accessed Aug. 27, 2006); "On the Issues: Rev. Jesse Jackson on
Civil Rights," www.ontheissues.org/Celeb/
Rev_Jesse_Jackson_Civil_Rights.htm (accessed Nov. 1, 2006);
"How Jesse Jackson's Focus on the Financial Markets Could

Page 228

Make a Difference," LookSmart,
www.findarticles.eom/p/articles/mi_m1365/is_n3_v29/ai_212277
20 (accessed Nov. 1, 2006).

52. Cal Manjowski, "TIAA-CREF Drops Coke from Social
Choice Account," Reuters, July 18, 2006,
reuters.com/misc/topnews&storyID=20o6-o, www
.indiaresource.org/news/2006/1080.html.

53. Central Intelligence Agency, The World FactBook,
www.cia.gov/cia/publications/ factbook/geos/ec.html.About the
Author

John Perkins is the author of Confessions of an Economic Hit
Man, a startling expose of international corruption that spent more
than a year on The New York Times bestseller lists and has been
published in over thirty languages. He is a founder and board
member of Dream Change and The Pachamama Alliance, two
nonprofit organizations devoted to raising consciousness and
creating a stable, sustainable, and peaceful world for future
generations. Perkins has lectured and taught at universities on
four continents, including Harvard, Wharton, and Princeton, and
is a champion for environmental and social causes.

www.johnperkins.org

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